Vol 58, No 1 (2024)
Research Paper
Published online: 2024-02-23

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Neuronal pentraxin 2 correlates with neurodegeneration but not cognition in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH)

Megha Patel1, Yifan Zhang2, Mei-Fang Xiao3, Paul Worley13, Abhay Moghekar1
Pubmed: 38393959
Neurol Neurochir Pol 2024;58(1):47-53.

Abstract

Aim of the study. Neuronal pentraxin-2 (NPTX2) is a synaptic protein responsible for modulating plasticity at excitatory synapses. While the role of NPTX2 as a novel synaptic biomarker in cognitive disorders has been elucidated recently, its role in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is not yet understood. Clinical rationale for study. To determine if NPTX2 predicts cognition in patients with iNPH, and whether it could serve as a predictive marker for shunt outcomes.

Material and methods. 354 iNPH patients underwent cerebrospinal fluid drainage (CSF) as part of the tap test or extended lumbar drainage. Demographic and clinical measures including age, Evans Index (EI), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score, Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) score, and baseline and post-shunt surgery Timed Up and Go (TUG) test scores were ascertained. CSF NPTX2 concentrations were measured using an ELISA. CSF β-amyloid 1–40 (Aβ1–40), β-amyloid 1–42 (Aβ1–42), and phosphorylated tau-181 (pTau-181) were measured by chemiluminescent assays. Spearman’s correlation was used to determine the correlation between CSF NPTX2 concentrations and age, EI, MoCA and FAQ, TUG, Aβ1–40/Aβ1–42 ratio, and pTau-181 concentrations. Logistic regression was used to determine if CSF NPTX2 values were a predictor of short-term improvement post-CSF drainage or long-term improvement post-shunt surgery.

Results. There were 225 males and 129 females with a mean age of 77.7 years (± 7.06). Average CSF NPTX2 level in all iNPH patients was 559.97 pg/mL (± 432.87). CSF NPTX2 level in those selected for shunt surgery was 505.61 pg/mL (± 322.38). NPTX2 showed modest correlations with pTau-181 (r = 0.44, p < 0.001) with a trend for Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio (r = –0.1, p = 0.053). NPTX2 concentrations did not correlate with age (r = –0.012, p = 0.83) or MoCA score (r = 0.001, p = 0.87), but correlated negatively with FAQ (r = –0.15, p = 0.019).

Conclusions. While CSF NPTX2 values correlate with neurodegeneration, they do not correlate with cognitive or functional measures in iNPH. CSF NPTX2 cannot serve as a predictor of either short-term or long-term improvement after CSF drainage.

Clinical implications. These results suggest that synaptic degeneration is not a core feature of iNPH pathophysiology.

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Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska