open access

Vol 7, No 2 (2022)
Review paper
Published online: 2022-06-22
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Association between low serum vitamin D and increased mortality and severity due to COVID-19: reverse causality?

Teodoro J. Oscanoa12, Rawia A. Ghashut3, Alfonso Carvajal4, Roman Romero-Ortuno56
DOI: 10.5603/DEMJ.a2022.0016
·
Disaster Emerg Med J 2022;7(2):124-131.
Affiliations
  1. Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad de San Martín de Porres, Lima, Peru
  2. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru
  3. Academic Unit of Anaesthesia, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life of Sciences- University of Glasgow, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom
  4. Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
  5. Discipline of Medical Gerontology, Mercer’s Institute for Successful Ageing, St James’s Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
  6. Global Brain Health Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland

open access

Vol 7, No 2 (2022)
REVIEW ARTICLES
Published online: 2022-06-22

Abstract

We are very close to completing two years since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Even though vaccines have been developed and applied to more than 4 billion people in the world, SARS-CoV-2 continues to be a challenge for humanity. Therefore, it is important to study modifiable risk factors that may increase the severity of COVID-19, and one of the most discussed has been vitamin D. Currently, there is some evidence of association between low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3] and increased mortality and severity due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Before the pandemic, experimental evidence in animal and human studies had reported that an acute inflammatory process can cause a secondary decrease in 25(OH)D3. COVID-19 can be associated with a severe inflammatory process with an elevation of inflammatory markers; in this light, the reported association between low 25(OH)D3 and COVID-19 severity and/or mortality may be an epiphenomenon of the inflammatory process induced by SARS-CoV-2 and be an example of reverse causality.

Abstract

We are very close to completing two years since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Even though vaccines have been developed and applied to more than 4 billion people in the world, SARS-CoV-2 continues to be a challenge for humanity. Therefore, it is important to study modifiable risk factors that may increase the severity of COVID-19, and one of the most discussed has been vitamin D. Currently, there is some evidence of association between low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3] and increased mortality and severity due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Before the pandemic, experimental evidence in animal and human studies had reported that an acute inflammatory process can cause a secondary decrease in 25(OH)D3. COVID-19 can be associated with a severe inflammatory process with an elevation of inflammatory markers; in this light, the reported association between low 25(OH)D3 and COVID-19 severity and/or mortality may be an epiphenomenon of the inflammatory process induced by SARS-CoV-2 and be an example of reverse causality.

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Keywords

SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; severity; mortality

About this article
Title

Association between low serum vitamin D and increased mortality and severity due to COVID-19: reverse causality?

Journal

Disaster and Emergency Medicine Journal

Issue

Vol 7, No 2 (2022)

Article type

Review paper

Pages

124-131

Published online

2022-06-22

Page views

550

Article views/downloads

126

DOI

10.5603/DEMJ.a2022.0016

Bibliographic record

Disaster Emerg Med J 2022;7(2):124-131.

Keywords

SARS-CoV-2
COVID-19
Vitamin D
25-hydroxyvitamin D
severity
mortality

Authors

Teodoro J. Oscanoa
Rawia A. Ghashut
Alfonso Carvajal
Roman Romero-Ortuno

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