Vol 17, No 4 (2020)
Research paper
Published online: 2020-09-18
Get Citation

Media image of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychotherapists. Analysis of polish weekly reviews

Anna Róża Hoss, Rafał Styła, Hubert Suszek, Joachim Kowalski, Małgorzata Grochowska, Jakub Dąbrowski
DOI: 10.5603/PSYCH.2020.0036
·
Psychiatria 2020;17(4):216-223.

paid access

Vol 17, No 4 (2020)
Prace oryginalne - nadesłane
Published online: 2020-09-18

Abstract

Introduction: The image of psychiatry and psychiatrists in film, press and news media is presented in a negative way.
Psychiatrists are shown as unethical, unprofessional, ineffective and generallybringing harm to their patients, although
they are shown as better educated and more intelligent than psychologists. Existing literature on the image of psychiatrists
concerns mainly fictional characters and skips the Polish context. The aim of the study was to find out how psychiatry
and mental health experts are presented in Polish opinion weeklies.

Material and methods: An analysis of psychiatrist’simage was carried out using competent judges method. A database
of 208 articles from year 2013 was created. The articles were chosen from the magazines“Angora”, “Do Rzeczy”, “Gazeta
Polska”, “Gość Niedzielny”, “Newsweek Polska”, “Polityka”, “Sieci”, “Wprost”, using keywords related to psychiatry, psychology
and psychotherapy.Two independent judges conducted the analysis using a questionnaire created for the purpose of
this study, assessing the content of the articles on three five-step dimensions: (1) Competence, (2) Positive role, (3) Ethics.

Results: The average overall assessment of the image of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychotherapists oscillated
around the value of 3.5, indicating the neutrality of the image. No statistically significant differences were found in the
assessment of the level of competence, a positive assessment of the role and ethics between specialists. 53% of the
articles presented psychiatrists in a positive way, 40% in a neutral way, and 6% in a negative way. Among psychologists,
the image was positive in 60%, in 27% it was neutral, and in 13% - negative. In the case of psychotherapists, the frequencies
is by analogy 33%, 52% and 15%.

Conclusions: The image of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychotherapists in the analyzed articles was positive or neutral.
There was no significant difference between representation strategies of each profession. The comparison of the obtained
results with the analyses presented in the literature shows that the image of mental health experts is systematically improving.

Abstract

Introduction: The image of psychiatry and psychiatrists in film, press and news media is presented in a negative way.
Psychiatrists are shown as unethical, unprofessional, ineffective and generallybringing harm to their patients, although
they are shown as better educated and more intelligent than psychologists. Existing literature on the image of psychiatrists
concerns mainly fictional characters and skips the Polish context. The aim of the study was to find out how psychiatry
and mental health experts are presented in Polish opinion weeklies.

Material and methods: An analysis of psychiatrist’simage was carried out using competent judges method. A database
of 208 articles from year 2013 was created. The articles were chosen from the magazines“Angora”, “Do Rzeczy”, “Gazeta
Polska”, “Gość Niedzielny”, “Newsweek Polska”, “Polityka”, “Sieci”, “Wprost”, using keywords related to psychiatry, psychology
and psychotherapy.Two independent judges conducted the analysis using a questionnaire created for the purpose of
this study, assessing the content of the articles on three five-step dimensions: (1) Competence, (2) Positive role, (3) Ethics.

Results: The average overall assessment of the image of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychotherapists oscillated
around the value of 3.5, indicating the neutrality of the image. No statistically significant differences were found in the
assessment of the level of competence, a positive assessment of the role and ethics between specialists. 53% of the
articles presented psychiatrists in a positive way, 40% in a neutral way, and 6% in a negative way. Among psychologists,
the image was positive in 60%, in 27% it was neutral, and in 13% - negative. In the case of psychotherapists, the frequencies
is by analogy 33%, 52% and 15%.

Conclusions: The image of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychotherapists in the analyzed articles was positive or neutral.
There was no significant difference between representation strategies of each profession. The comparison of the obtained
results with the analyses presented in the literature shows that the image of mental health experts is systematically improving.

Get Citation

Keywords

psychiatry, psychotherapy, psychology, stigmatisation, press

About this article
Title

Media image of psychiatrists, psychologists and psychotherapists. Analysis of polish weekly reviews

Journal

Psychiatria (Psychiatry)

Issue

Vol 17, No 4 (2020)

Article type

Research paper

Pages

216-223

Published online

2020-09-18

DOI

10.5603/PSYCH.2020.0036

Bibliographic record

Psychiatria 2020;17(4):216-223.

Keywords

psychiatry
psychotherapy
psychology
stigmatisation
press

Authors

Anna Róża Hoss
Rafał Styła
Hubert Suszek
Joachim Kowalski
Małgorzata Grochowska
Jakub Dąbrowski

References (49)
  1. Sartorius N, Gaebel W, Cleveland HR, et al. WPA guidance on how to combat stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists. World Psychiatry. 2010; 9(3): 131–144.
  2. Murawiec, S. Sprawozdanie Rzecznika Prasowego Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychiatrycznego 2016. 2019: Warszawa.
  3. Lauber C, Nordt C, Falcato L, et al. Lay recommendations on how to treat mental disorders. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2001; 36(11): 553–556.
  4. De Toledo Piza Peluso E, Blay SL. Public beliefs about the treatment of schizophrenia and depression in Brazil. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2009; 55(1): 16–27.
  5. Kobau R, Diiorio C, Chapman D, et al. SAMHSA/CDC Mental Illness Stigma Panel Members. Attitudes about mental illness and its treatment: validation of a generic scale for public health surveillance of mental illness associated stigma. Community Ment Health J. 2010; 46(2): 164–176.
  6. Yang LH, Phelan JoC, Link BG. Stigma and beliefs of efficacy towards traditional Chinese medicine and Western psychiatric treatment among Chinese-Americans. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2008; 14(1): 10–18.
  7. Richardson LA. Seeking and obtaining mental health services: what do parents expect? Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2001; 15(5): 223–231.
  8. Balch P, Ireland JF, McWilliams SA, et al. Client evaluation of community mental health services: relation to demographic and treatment variables. Am J Community Psychol. 1977; 5(2): 243–247.
  9. Leaf P, Bruce M, Tischler G, et al. The relationship between demographic factors and attitudes toward mental health services. Journal of Community Psychology. 1987; 15(2): 275–284, doi: 10.1002/1520-6629(198704)15:2<275::aid-jcop2290150216>3.0.co;2-j.
  10. Skuse DH. Attitudes to the psychiatric outpatient clinic. Br Med J. 1975; 3(5981): 469–471.
  11. Noble L, Douglas B, Newman S. What do patients expect of psychiatric services? A systematic and critical review of empirical studies. Social Science & Medicine. 2001; 52(7): 985–998.
  12. Bystritsky A, Wagner A, Russo J, et al. Assessment of beliefs about psychotropic medication and psychotherapy: development of a measure for patients with anxiety disorders. General Hospital Psychiatry. 2005; 27(5): 313–318.
  13. Jungbauer J, Wittmund B, Dietrich S, et al. The disregarded caregivers: subjective burden in spouses of schizophrenia patients. Schizophr Bull. 2004; 30(3): 665–675.
  14. Ryan CS, Robinson DR, Hausmann LR. Stereotyping among providers and consumers of public mental health services. The role of perceived group variability. Behav Modif. 2001; 25(3): 406–442.
  15. Fink PJ, Tasman A. Stigma and mental illness. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press. 1992.
  16. Thornicroft G. Stigma and discrimination limit access to mental health care. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc. 2008; 17(1): 14–19.
  17. Henderson C, Evans-Lacko S, Thornicroft G. Mental illness stigma, help seeking, and public health programs. Am J Public Health. 2013; 103(5): 777–780.
  18. von Sydow K, Reimer C. Attitudes toward psychotherapists, psychologists, psychiatrists, and psychoanalysts. A meta-content analysis of 60 studies published between 1948 and 1995. Am J Psychother. 1998; 52(4): 463–488.
  19. Ben-Noun, L. Characterization of patients refusing professional psychiatric treatment in a primary care clinic. Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences. 1996; 33(3): 167–174.
  20. Gaebel W, Zäske H, Baumann AE, et al. Evaluation of the German WPA "program against stigma and discrimination because of schizophrenia--Open the Doors": results from representative telephone surveys before and after three years of antistigma interventions. Schizophr Res. 2008; 98(1-3): 184–193.
  21. Wang PS, Lane M, Olfson M, et al. Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005; 62(6): 629–640.
  22. Kochański A, Cechnicki A. Opinions of Polish psychiatrists on psychiatry and their own professional role. Postępy Psychiatrii i Neurologii. 2018; 27(1): 31–48.
  23. Kochański, A., Cechnicki, A. Postawy polskich psychiatrów wobec osób chorujących psychicznie. PsychiatriaPolska. 2011; 51(1): 29–44.
  24. Angermeyer MC, van der Auwera S, Carta MG, et al. Public attitudes towards psychiatry and psychiatric treatment at the beginning of the 21st century: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population surveys. World Psychiatry. 2017; 16(1): 50–61.
  25. Gabbard G. Psychotherapy in Hollywood Cinema. Australasian Psychiatry. 2016; 9(4): 365–369.
  26. Gabbard G. O., Gabbard K. Psychiatry and the cinema. USA: American Psychiatric Association. 1999.
  27. Beachum, L. (2010) The Psychopathology of Cinema: How Mental Illness and Psychotherapy are Portrayed in Film. Honors Projects, 56. http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/honorsprojects/56.
  28. Hopson J. The demonisation of psychiatrists in fiction (and why real psychiatrists might want to do something about it). Psychiatr Bull (2014). 2014; 38(4): 175–179.
  29. Orchowski L, Spickard B, McNamara J. Cinema and the valuing of psychotherapy: Implications for clinical practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 2006; 37(5): 506–514.
  30. Schultz JM, Videbeck SL. Lippincott's manual of psychiatric nursing care plans. Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams, Philadelphia 2013.
  31. Walter G. The psychiatrist in American cartoons, 1941-1990. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1992; 85(2): 167–172.
  32. Wahl, O., Reiss, M., Thompson, C. A. Film Psychotherapy in the 21st Century, Health Communication. 2018; 33(3): 238–245.
  33. Coverdale J, Nairn R, Claasen D. Depictions of mental illness in print media: a prospective national sample. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2002; 36(5): 697–700.
  34. Nunnally J. The communication of mental health information: A comparison of the opinions of experts and the public with mass media presentations. Behavioral Science. 2007; 2(3): 222–230.
  35. Gerbner G, Gross L, Morgan M, et al. The “Mainstreaming” of America: Violence Profile No. 11. Journal of Communication. 2006; 30(3): 10–29.
  36. Wahl OF, Harman CR. Family views of stigma. Schizophr Bull. 1989; 15(1): 131–139.
  37. Berlin FS, Malin HM. Media distortion of the public's perception of recidivism and psychiatric rehabilitation. Am J Psychiatry. 1991; 148(11): 1572–1576.
  38. Diefenbach D. The portrayal of mental illness on prime-time television. Journal of Community Psychology. 1997; 25(3): 289–302, doi: 10.1002/(sici)1520-6629(199705)25:3<289::aid-jcop5>3.0.co;2-r.
  39. Corrigan PW, Watson AC, Gracia G, et al. Newspaper stories as measures of structural stigma. Psychiatr Serv. 2005; 56(5): 551–556.
  40. Edney D.R. Mass Media and Mental Illness: A Literature Review. Ontario: Canadian Mental Health Association. 2004.
  41. Cutcliffe JR, Hannigan B. Mass media, 'monsters' and mental health clients: the need for increased lobbying. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2001; 8(4): 315–321.
  42. Wahl O, Roth R. Television images of mental illness: Results of a metropolitan Washington media watch. Journal of Broadcasting. 2009; 26(2): 599–605.
  43. Wahl OF. Media madness: public images of mental illness. Rutgers University Press 1995.
  44. Rose N. Governing risky individuals: The role of psychiatry in new regimes of control. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law. 2009; 5(2): 177–195.
  45. Wilson C, Nairn R, Coverdale J, et al. Constructing mental illness as dangerous: a pilot study. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1999; 33(2): 240–247.
  46. Angermeyer MC. Schizophrenia and violence. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2000; 102(407): 63–67.
  47. Francis C, Pirkis J, Francis C, et al. Portrayal of depression and other mental illnesses in Australian nonfiction media. Journal of Community Psychology. 2001; 33(3): 283–297.
  48. Olstead R. Contesting the text: Canadian media depictions of the conflation of mental illness and criminality. Sociology of Health & Illness. 2002; 24(5): 621–643.
  49. Angermeyer MC, Matschinger H. The effect of personal experience with mental illness on the attitude towards individuals suffering from mental disorders. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1996; 31(6): 321–326.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

Wydawcą serwisu jest Via Medica sp. z o.o. sp. komandytowa, ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl