Vol 58, No 1 (2024)
Research Paper
Published online: 2023-12-29

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Small vessel disease in primary familial brain calcification with novel truncating PDGFB variants

Maha Yektay Farahmand12, Johan Wasselius3, Elisabet Englund4, Irwin Braverman5, Andreas Puschmann126, Andreea Ilinca12
Pubmed: 38156729
Neurol Neurochir Pol 2024;58(1):94-105.

Abstract

Introduction. Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by bilateral calcification in the brain, especially in the basal ganglia, leading to neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) have been described in patients with PFBC and pathogenic variants in the gene for platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide (PDGFB), suggesting a manifest cerebrovascular process. We present below the cases of two PFBC families with PDGFB variants and stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) episodes. We examine the possible correlation between PFBC and vascular events as stroke/TIA, and evaluate whether signs for vascular disease in this condition are systemic or limited to the cerebral vessels.

Material and methods. Two Swedish families with novel truncating PDGFB variants, p.Gln140* and p.Arg191*, are described clinically and radiologically. Subcutaneous capillary vessels in affected and unaffected family members were examined by light and electron microscopy.

Results. All mutation carriers showed WMH and bilateral brain calcifications. The clinical presentations differed, with movement disorder symptoms dominating in family A, and psychiatric symptoms in family B. However, affected members of both families had stroke, TIA, and/or asymptomatic intracerebral ischaemic lesions. Only one of the patients had classical vascular risk factors. Skin microvasculature was normal.

Conclusions. Patients with these PDGFB variants develop microvascular changes in the brain, but not the skin. PDGFB-related small vessel disease can manifest radiologically as cerebral haemorrhage or ischaemia, and may explain TIA or stroke in patients without other vascular risk factors.

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