Vol 51, No 5 (2017)
Review Article

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Ultra high field TOF-MRA: A method to visualize small cerebral vessels. 7T TOF-MRA sequence parameters on different MRI scanners – Literature review

Cezary Grochowski1, Grzegorz Staśkiewicz2
DOI: 10.1016/j.pjnns.2017.06.011
Neurol Neurochir Pol 2017;51(5):411-418.



Time-of-flight (TOF) angiography is a technique allowing to visualize the blood flow in vessels. 7T ToF-MRA is able to visualize the whole Circle of Willis including small perforating branches without any known side effects as opposed to usually used DSA and CTA with high exposition to the radiation and high doses of contrast as far as CTA is concerned.


The aim of this review is to describe ultra-high field ToF-MRA and present different protocol data depending on the scanner used in the study.

Materials and methods

PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Google Scholar databases were searched. Selection of studies for this systematic review included 7T magnetic resonance angiography studies. We searched for type of head coil used in various studies, flip angle, echo time, repetition time, field-of-view (FOV), number of slices per slab, matrix, voxel size and acquisition time.


Visualization for the small perforating vessels of the Circle of Willis, that are not fully visualized using low-field-strength MRA is improving with increasing magnetic field strength, which has been proved by several studies.


Ultra-high filed ToF-MRA has found to be a superior method in depicting cerebral microvasculature. 7T ToF-MRA seems to be a reliable method for visualization of arteries up to the second order cerebral arteries and has a potential to replace DSA.

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Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska