English Polski
Vol 10, No 4 (2017)
Research paper
Published online: 2018-01-17

open access

Page views 862
Article views/downloads 1255
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Blood transfusion service in Poland in 2016

Aleksandra Rosiek1, Anna Tomaszewska1, Elżbieta Lachert1, Jolanta Antoniewicz-Papis1, Jolanta Kubis1, Ryszard Pogłód1, Magdalena Łętowska1
Journal of Transfusion Medicine 2017;10(4):113-129.


Background: This study evaluated the basic aspects of the activity of the Polish Blood Transfusion Service in 2016. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of the 2016-data supplied by the Regional Blood Centers. Results: Blood and blood components were collected in 21 Polish Regional Blood Centers, 135 local collection sites and during 13 228 mobile collections. The overall number of blood donors was estimated at 596 100, the majority of which were non-remunerated donors (595 276 — including 40 140 responders to donation appeals), as well as 679 autologous donors. Most frequent were whole blood collections (1 162 370) and least frequent — apheresis granulocyte collections (53 procedures) and RBCs collections (6 procedures). Whole blood donations were performed in local collection sites (46.02%), in Regional Blood Centers (27.36%) and mobile collection sites (26.62%). Most frequently prepared blood components were red blood cell concentrates (RBCs — 1 144 512 units) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP — 1 280 926 units, 23.64% for clinical use). Platelet concentrates (PCs) amounted to 52 126 units from apheresis and 74 690 whole blood-derived. Additional processing methods (leukocyte depletion, irradiation) were more frequently applied to PCs (38.0% leukocyte-depleted, 2.37% irradiated, 57.71% both leukocyte-depleted and irradiated) than to RBCs (12.36% leukocyte-depleted, 0.13% irradiated, 7.92% both leukocyte-depleted and irradiated). The percentage of PCs (10.52%) and FFP (10.04% units) issued for transfusion were subjected to pathogen reduction technologies. For a variety of reasons — 14 117 units of whole blood, 32 060 units of RBCs, 66 413 units of FFP and 5 270 of pooled PCs and 1325 of apheresis PCs were wasted in 2016. Conclusions: The study data may contribute to the assessment of the tendencies observed in Polish blood centers and serve practical-benchmarking. This in turn may prove beneficial to the transfusion community as a whole.


  1. Ustawa dnia 22 sierpnia 1997 r. o publicznej służbie krwi. (Dz. U. z 2017 r. poz. 1371).
  2. WHO Expert Group. Expert Consensus Statement on achieving self-sufficiency in safe blood and blood products, based on voluntary non-remunerated blood donation (VNRBD). Vox Sang. 2012; 103(4): 337–342.
  3. World Health Organization. Towards Self-Sufficiency in Safe Blood and Blood Products based on Voluntary Non-Remunerated Donation. Global Status. ; 2013.
  4. Główny Urząd Statystyczny, Komitet Redakcyjny. Rocznik demograficzny. ; 2012.
  5. Główny Urząd Statystyczny, Komitet Redakcyjny. Rocznik demograficzny. ; 2016.
  6. Pogłód R, Rosiek A, Grabarczyk P, et al. Charakterystyka podstawowych wskaźników dotyczących krwiodawstwa i krwiolecznictwa w Europie - aktualne wyzwania i działania. Journal of Transfusion Medicine. 2015; 8(2): 60–77.
  7. Stramer SL, Hollinger FB, Katz LM, et al. Emerging infectious disease agents and their potential threat to transfusion safety. Transfusion. 2009; 49 Suppl 2: 1S–29S.
  8. Rabel PO, Planitzer CB, Farcet MR, et al. Increasing West Nile virus antibody titres in central European plasma donors from 2006 to 2010. Eurosurveillance. 2011; 16(10).
  9. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Ebola outbreak in West Africa (2013-2016). http://ecdc europa eu/en/healthtopics/ebola_marburg_fevers/pages/ebola-outbreak-west-africa aspx [Online. ; 28: 11.
  10. WHO Africa. Ebola Virus Disease. http://www.afro.who.int/health-topics/ebola-virus-disease. [online]; data pobrania: 20.11.2017. [Online].
  11. Soares de Araújo JS, Regis CT, Gomes RG, et al. Microcephaly in north-east Brazil: a retrospective study on neonates born between 2012 and 2015. Bull World Health Organ. 2016; 94(11): 835–840.
  12. Musso D, Nilles EJ, Cao-Lormeau VM. Rapid spread of emerging Zika virus in the Pacific area. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014; 20(10): O595–O596.
  13. WHO statement 1 February 2016 . WHO statement on the first meeting of the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) Emergency Committee on Zika virus and observed increase in neurological disorders and neonatal malformations. http://www who int/mediacentre/news/statements/2016/1st-emergency-committee-zika/en/ [Online. 2005; 28: 11.
  14. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. RAPID RISK ASSESSMENT. Zika virus disease epidemic. Tenth update, 4 April 2017. https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/rapid-risk-assessment-zika-virus-disease-epidemic-10th-update-4-april-2017. [online]; data pobrania: 20.11.2017. [Online].
  15. Vassallo R, Goldman M, Germain M, et al. BEST Collaborative. Preoperative Autologous Blood Donation: Waning Indications in an Era of Improved Blood Safety. Transfus Med Rev. 2015; 29(4): 268–275.
  16. European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare (EDQM). Guide to the preparation, use and quality assurance of blood components: recommendation No. R (95) 15, wyd. ; 19: 2017.
  17. Program zdrowotny. „Zapewnienie samowystarczalności Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej w zakresie krwi, jej składników i produktów krwiopochodnych”. http://www2.mz.gov.pl/wwwfiles/ma_struktura/docs/program_nck_samowystar_05082010.pdf. [Online] [Zacytowano: 28 11. ; 2014.
  18. Główny Urząd Statystyczny, Komitet Redakcyjny. Rocznik demograficzny. ; 2013.
  19. Główny Urząd Statystyczny, Komitet Redakcyjny. Rocznik demograficzny. ; 2014.
  20. Główny Urząd Statystyczny, Komitet Redakcyjny. Rocznik demograficzny. ; 2015.
  21. NICE. Blood transfusion. NICE guideline. Published: 18 November 2015. nice.org.uk/guidance/ng24. [Online] [Zacytowano: 03 03. ; 2016.
  22. Klein AA, Arnold P, Bingham RM, et al. AAGBI guidelines: the use of blood components and their alternatives 2016. Anaesthesia. 2016; 71(7): 829–842.
  23. Simancas-Racines D, Osorio D, Martí-Carvajal AJ, et al. Leukoreduction for the prevention of adverse reactions from allogeneic blood transfusion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015(12): CD009745.
  24. Whitaker B, Rajbhandary S, Kleinman S, et al. Trends in United States blood collection and transfusion: results from the 2013 AABB Blood Collection, Utilization, and Patient Blood Management Survey. Transfusion. 2016; 56(9): 2173–2183.
  25. Ellingson KD, Sapiano MRP, Haass KA, et al. Continued decline in blood collection and transfusion in the United States-2015. Transfusion. 2017; 57 Suppl 2: 1588–1598.
  26. Angheben A, Boix L, Buonfrate D, et al. Chagas disease and transfusion medicine: a perspective from non-endemic countries. Blood Transfus. 2015; 13(4): 540–550.
  27. Leitman SF. Hemochromatosis: the new blood donor. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2013; 2013: 645–650.
  28. Rosiek A, Tomaszewska A, Lachert E, et al. Obniżone stężenie hemoglobiny najczęstszą przyczyną dyskwalifikacji krwiodawców na terenie polski. Acta Haematologica Polonica. 2015; 46: 24.
  29. Goldman M, Magnussen K, Gorlin J, et al. International Forum regarding practices related to donor haemoglobin and iron. Vox Sang. 2016; 111(4): 449–455.
  30. Vuk T, Magnussen K, De Kort W, et al. International forum: an investigation of iron status in blood donors. Blood Transfus. 2016 [Epub ahead of print]; 15(1): 20–41.
  31. Magnussen K, Ladelund S. Handling low hemoglobin and iron deficiency in a blood donor population: 2 years' experience. Transfusion. 2015; 55(10): 2473–2478.
  32. Farmer S, Trentino K, Hofmann A, et al. A Programmatic Approach to Patient Blood Management – Reducing Transfusions and Improving Patient Outcomes. The Open Anesthesiology Journal. 2015; 9(1): 6–16.
  33. van Ho, Koopman MMW, Koffijberg H, et al. Historical time trends in red blood cell usage in the Netherland. International Journal of Clinical Transfusion Medicine. 2016; 4: 67–77.
  34. Vincent J. Anemia and Blood Transfusion in Critically Ill Patients. JAMA. 2002; 288(12): 1499.
  35. Shander A. Preoperative anemia and its management. Transfusion and Apheresis Science. 2014; 50(1): 13–15.
  36. Heitmiller ES, Hill RB, Marshall CE, et al. Blood wastage reduction using Lean Sigma methodology. Transfusion. 2010; 50(9): 1887–1896.
  37. Liumbruno GM, Rafanelli D. Appropriateness of blood transfusion and physicians' education: a continuous challenge for Hospital Transfusion Committees? Blood Transfus. 2012; 10(1): 1–3.
  38. Ansari S, Szallasi A. Blood management by transfusion triggers: when less is more. Blood Transfus. 2012; 10(1): 28–33.
  39. Yazer M, Lozano M, Fung M, et al. An international survey on the role of the hospital transfusion committee. Transfusion. 2017; 57(5): 1280–1287.