Vol 72, No 1 (2021)
Original article
Published online: 2021-03-29

open access

Page views 1380
Article views/downloads 1149
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies among community members: a cross-sectional study in Songan Village, Bali, Indonesia

Paulus Mario Christopher1, Cucunawangsih Cucunawangsih2, Anak Agung Gde Bagus Adidharma1, I Putu Desna Kesuma Putra1, Dewa Gede Sentana Putra1
Pubmed: 33829470
IMH 2021;72(1):26-35.


Background: Rabies is a preventable yet endemic zoonotic disease caused by a neurotrophic virus, a member of Rhabdoviridae family. Rabies remains a public health threat in Indonesia, specifically Bali Province. The present study aimed to understand the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding rabies among community members in Songan Village, Bali, Indonesia.

Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire among 175 community members residing in the administrative area of public health centre of Kintamani V in Songan Village of Bangli District, from December 2019 to February 2020. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS software, version 21.

Results: Of the 175 community members, 53 (30.3%) owned a dog. Majority of the respondents were Hindu (98.8%), female (56.0%), aged ≥ 29 years old (54.9%), with an educational background of higher secondary (28.6%), residing in Songan A and B residential village (86.9%), working as farmers (50.9%), with the level of income less than district minimum wage (71.4%). The KAP scores mean ± standard deviation were 6.93 ± 1.83 and 8.04 ± 1.07 (out of 10), respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed and the KAP of the community members was found to be significantly influenced by occupation (p-value < 0.05).

Conclusions: Albeit community members demonstrated some level of KAP regarding rabies, overall, this study revealed critical gaps in their fundamental knowledge of rabies, the prevention in dogs, and the local rules and regulations concerning rabies. In accordance with One Health Approach, further enforcement on the collaborative efforts for comprehensive education programmes, scheduled mass vaccination for dogs, and promotion for healthier attitudes and practices are recommended.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. Murray P, Rosenthal K, Pfaller M. Rhabdoviruses, filoviruses, and bornaviruses. In: Medical Microbiology. 8th ed. Elsevier, Philadelphia 2013: 496–500.
  2. Tiwari HK, Robertson ID, O'Dea M, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards rabies and free roaming dogs (FRD) in Panchkula district of north India: A cross-sectional study of urban residents. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019; 13(4): e0007384.
  3. Gongal G, Wright AE. Human rabies in the WHO Southeast Asia region: forward steps for elimination. Adv Prev Med. 2011; 2011: 383870.
  4. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Buku saku petunjuk teknis penatalaksanaan kasus gigitan hewan penular rabies di Indonesia. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI. 2016.
  5. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Profil Kesehatan Indonesia Tahun 2019. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI. 2020.
  6. Nugroho DK, Diarmitha IK, Tum S, et al. Analysis of rabies surveillance data (2008-2011) in Bali Province, Indonesia. OSIR. 2013; 6(2): 8–12.
  7. Manro NM, Yovani N. Towards a rabies-free Indonesia by 2020: Institution problem of public health policy implementation in Bali. J Kebijak Kesehat Indones. 2018; 7(4): 168–177.
  8. Bartlett EJ, Kotrlik WJ, Higgins CC. Organization Research: Determining appropriate sample size in survey research. Info Tech Lear Perform J. 2001; 19(1): 43–50.
  9. Noah N. The STROBE initiative: STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). Epidemiol Infect. 2008; 136(7): 865.
  10. Santhia K. Human rabies epidemiology in Bali, Indonesia. Int J Health Med Sci. 2019; 2(1): 7–16.
  11. Glasgow L, Worme A, Keku E, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding rabies in Grenada. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019; 13(1): e0007079.
  12. Hoetama E, Tanri N, Gianni L, et al. Pengetahuan, Sikap, dan Perilaku Masyarakat terhadap Penyakit Rabies di Kabupaten Manggarai, Nusa Tenggara Timur, 2014. eJKI. 2017; 4(3).
  13. Awuni B, Tarkang E, Manu E, et al. Dog owners' knowledge about rabies and other factors that influence canine anti-rabies vaccination in the Upper East region of Ghana. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2019; 4(3): 1–13.
  14. Bouaddi K, Bitar A, Bouslikhane M, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding rabies in El Jadida region, Morocco. Vet Sci. 2020; 7(1): 1–12.
  15. Widyastuti MD, Bardosh KL, Basri C, et al. On dogs, people, and a rabies epidemic: results from a sociocultural study in Bali, Indonesia. Infect Dis Poverty. 2015; 4: 30.
  16. Andriani F, Batan IW, Kardena IM. The correlation analysis and spreading pattern of rabies cases between dogs and human in Bangli from 2009-2014. Indones Med Veterinus. 2016; 5(1): 79–88.
  17. Harapan H, Rajamoorthy Y, Anwar S, et al. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding dengue virus infection among inhabitants of Aceh, Indonesia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2018; 18(1): 96.
  18. Ntampaka P, Nyaga PN, Niragire F, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies and its control among dog owners in Kigali city, Rwanda. PLoS One. 2019; 14(8): e0210044.
  19. Sarjana N, Prasetyawati A, Budiani D. Hubungan antara Tingkat Pengetahuan dan Sikap dengan Tindakan Pencegahan Penyakit Rabies pada Warga di Wilayah Puskesmas Kuta II. Smart Med J. 2018; 1(1): 18.
  20. Tiwari HK, O'Dea M, Robertson ID, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards rabies and free-roaming dogs (FRD) in Shirsuphal village in western India: A community based cross-sectional study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019; 13(1): e0007120.
  21. Hagos WG, Muchie KF, Gebru GG, et al. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice towards rabies and associated factors among household heads in Mekelle city, Ethiopia. BMC Public Health. 2020; 20(1): 57.
  22. Wicaksono A, Ilyas AZ, Sudarnika E, et al. Knowledge, attitude, and practice study of dog owners related to rabies in Sukabumi District, West Java. JVeteriner. 2018; 19(2): 230–41.
  23. Ameh VO, Dzikwi AA, Umoh JU. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners to canine rabies in Wukari metropolis, Taraba State, Nigeria. Glob J Health Sci. 2014; 6(5): 226–240.
  24. Sambo M, Lembo T, Cleaveland S, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about rabies prevention and control: a community survey in Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014; 8(12): e3310.
  25. Hampson K, Dobson A, Kaare M, et al. Rabies exposures, post-exposure prophylaxis and deaths in a region of endemic canine rabies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008; 2(11): e339.
  26. Morters MK, Restif O, Hampson K, et al. Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction. J Anim Ecol. 2013; 82(1): 6–14.
  27. Lee JH, Lee MJ, Lee JB, et al. Review of canine rabies prevalence under two different vaccination programmes in Korea. Vet Rec. 2001; 148(16): 511–512.
  28. Batan IW, Suatha IK. actors encouraging the incidence of rabies in dogs in villages in Bali. J Vet. 2016; 17(2): 274–279.
  29. Bagherian HR, Taghipour A, Nezamdoost F, et al. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding animal bites and rabies; A multi-centre study. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol. 2018; 7(4): 92–95.
  30. Subrata M, Purnama SG, Utami A, et al. Role of stakeholder in rabies control with integrated One Health approach in Bali. J Kebijak Kesehat Indones. 2020; 09(01): 20–32.