open access

Vol 22, No 4 (2018)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Published online: 2018-10-08
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Hypertension in children from a nephrological perspective — are there any differences between younger children and adolescents?

Karol Marschollek, Paweł Marschollek, Anna Ciszewska, Julia Rasała, Danuta Zwolińska, Kinga Musiał
DOI: 10.5603/AH.a2018.0018
·
Arterial Hypertension 2018;22(4):179-184.

open access

Vol 22, No 4 (2018)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Published online: 2018-10-08

Abstract

Background. Hypertension (HTN) affects about 5% of children. Renal diseases are the major cause of HTN in
pediatric patients, but the incidence of primary HTN is increasing. The aim of the study was to analyze the potential
differences between etiology of HTN, type of renal disease leading to HTN, clinical picture, laboratory test results
or family history, with reference to patients’ age.

Material and methods. Medical records of 112 patients (27 children < 11 years and 85 adolescents > 11 years),
diagnosed with hypertension in the Department of Pediatric Nephrology, were analyzed. Family history, aetiology
of HTN, clinical course and laboratory results were compared, regarding the patients’ age.

Results. HTN secondary to renal disease prevailed over the primary one in younger children. Major causes of renal
HTN differed with age. In children under 11 anomalies in the urinary tract were dominant, in teenagers — glomerulopathies. In adolescents, the incidence of primary HTN was higher than in the younger patients and became
comparable to that of secondary HTN. Patients with primary HTN, irrespective of their age, had higher BMI and
more frequent positive family history of HTN. Clinical symptoms, except for headaches prevalent in adolescents,
did not depend on age.

Conclusions. In paediatric patients, hypertension secondary to renal diseases is more frequent than the primary
one. The incidence of primary HTN is increasing with age and occurs in adolescents more often than in younger
children. The clinical course is usually asymptomatic and may delay the diagnosis, especially in the youngest patients.

Abstract

Background. Hypertension (HTN) affects about 5% of children. Renal diseases are the major cause of HTN in
pediatric patients, but the incidence of primary HTN is increasing. The aim of the study was to analyze the potential
differences between etiology of HTN, type of renal disease leading to HTN, clinical picture, laboratory test results
or family history, with reference to patients’ age.

Material and methods. Medical records of 112 patients (27 children < 11 years and 85 adolescents > 11 years),
diagnosed with hypertension in the Department of Pediatric Nephrology, were analyzed. Family history, aetiology
of HTN, clinical course and laboratory results were compared, regarding the patients’ age.

Results. HTN secondary to renal disease prevailed over the primary one in younger children. Major causes of renal
HTN differed with age. In children under 11 anomalies in the urinary tract were dominant, in teenagers — glomerulopathies. In adolescents, the incidence of primary HTN was higher than in the younger patients and became
comparable to that of secondary HTN. Patients with primary HTN, irrespective of their age, had higher BMI and
more frequent positive family history of HTN. Clinical symptoms, except for headaches prevalent in adolescents,
did not depend on age.

Conclusions. In paediatric patients, hypertension secondary to renal diseases is more frequent than the primary
one. The incidence of primary HTN is increasing with age and occurs in adolescents more often than in younger
children. The clinical course is usually asymptomatic and may delay the diagnosis, especially in the youngest patients.

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Keywords

primary hypertension; kidney disease; obesity

About this article
Title

Hypertension in children from a nephrological perspective — are there any differences between younger children and adolescents?

Journal

Arterial Hypertension

Issue

Vol 22, No 4 (2018)

Pages

179-184

Published online

2018-10-08

DOI

10.5603/AH.a2018.0018

Bibliographic record

Arterial Hypertension 2018;22(4):179-184.

Keywords

primary hypertension
kidney disease
obesity

Authors

Karol Marschollek
Paweł Marschollek
Anna Ciszewska
Julia Rasała
Danuta Zwolińska
Kinga Musiał

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