open access

Vol 27, No 3 (2023)
Original paper
Published online: 2023-09-11
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Dietary sodium sources in hypertensive patients

Dariusz Stąpor1, Błażej Kaleta1, Weronika Olesiak1, Beata Podlejska1, Marek Rajzer1, Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek1
·
Arterial Hypertension 2023;27(3):167-175.
Affiliations
  1. First Department of Cardiology, Interventional Electrocardiology and Arterial Hypertension, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Institute of Cardiology, Krakow, Poland

open access

Vol 27, No 3 (2023)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Published online: 2023-09-11

Abstract

Background: Reducing dietary salt intake is the method recommended by the experts as the non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of dietary sodium intake by hypertensive patients and to analyze the factors affecting sodium intake. The frequency of consumption of dietary products with high sodium content was also analyzed.

Material and methods: We recruited for the study 60 patients with uncomplicated chronic hypertension, between 40 and 80 years old. A proprietary questionnaire was used during the study. The first part of the questionnaire included questions about gender, age, body weight, body height. The second part was a questionnaire on the frequency of consumption of sodium-rich products. It included 6 food groups. Another component of the study was a 24-hour dietary recall collected from two working days and one holiday. Analysis of the patient's diet was carried out using ALIANT software. The database was created in Microsoft Excel and statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 28.

Results: In the study group, all respondents exceeded the salt intake standards recommended by scientific societies. The amount of sodium intake among men was significantly higher than in women (p = 0.011). There was no correlation between age, body mass index, place of residence or education and daily sodium intake. Among sodium-containing foods, patients most frequently consumed pizza, with 76.67% of respondents consuming it once a month or more often. The most commonly used condiment was table salt, used by 95% of respondents.

Conclusions: Patients suffering from uncomplicated hypertension do not achieve the target of dietary sodium restriction to the values recommended in scientific guidelines. As dietary sodium intake standards are exceeded, hence the need for more intensive nutrition education among hypertensive patients.

Abstract

Background: Reducing dietary salt intake is the method recommended by the experts as the non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of dietary sodium intake by hypertensive patients and to analyze the factors affecting sodium intake. The frequency of consumption of dietary products with high sodium content was also analyzed.

Material and methods: We recruited for the study 60 patients with uncomplicated chronic hypertension, between 40 and 80 years old. A proprietary questionnaire was used during the study. The first part of the questionnaire included questions about gender, age, body weight, body height. The second part was a questionnaire on the frequency of consumption of sodium-rich products. It included 6 food groups. Another component of the study was a 24-hour dietary recall collected from two working days and one holiday. Analysis of the patient's diet was carried out using ALIANT software. The database was created in Microsoft Excel and statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 28.

Results: In the study group, all respondents exceeded the salt intake standards recommended by scientific societies. The amount of sodium intake among men was significantly higher than in women (p = 0.011). There was no correlation between age, body mass index, place of residence or education and daily sodium intake. Among sodium-containing foods, patients most frequently consumed pizza, with 76.67% of respondents consuming it once a month or more often. The most commonly used condiment was table salt, used by 95% of respondents.

Conclusions: Patients suffering from uncomplicated hypertension do not achieve the target of dietary sodium restriction to the values recommended in scientific guidelines. As dietary sodium intake standards are exceeded, hence the need for more intensive nutrition education among hypertensive patients.

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Keywords

dietary intake; hypertension; salt; sodium; sodium-rich foods

About this article
Title

Dietary sodium sources in hypertensive patients

Journal

Arterial Hypertension

Issue

Vol 27, No 3 (2023)

Article type

Original paper

Pages

167-175

Published online

2023-09-11

Page views

533

Article views/downloads

264

DOI

10.5603/ah.96621

Bibliographic record

Arterial Hypertension 2023;27(3):167-175.

Keywords

dietary intake
hypertension
salt
sodium
sodium-rich foods

Authors

Dariusz Stąpor
Błażej Kaleta
Weronika Olesiak
Beata Podlejska
Marek Rajzer
Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek

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