open access

Vol 17, No 5 (2013)
Prace oryginalne
Published online: 2014-01-24
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Effects of cigarette smoke on Holter ECG recordings in patients with arterial hypertension — the heart rate

Paweł Gać, Małgorzata Sobieszczańska
Nadciśnienie tętnicze 2013;17(5):359-368.

open access

Vol 17, No 5 (2013)
Prace oryginalne
Published online: 2014-01-24

Abstract

Background The epidemic of smoking and arterial hypertension is one of the most important health problems of the world. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke on the heart rate in patients with diagnosed arterial hypertension, who are active or passive smokers.

Material and methods A total of 223 persons were qualified for the research. The group of persons suffering from arterial hypertension was divided, on the basis of the cigarette smoking criterion, into the following groups: group A (n = 42) — active smokers; group B (n = 30) — passive smokers; group C (n = 34) — persons who are not exposed to cigarette smoke; group D (n = 26) — persons who have given up smoking. The maximum, minimum and mean heart rates were determined for each patient during the24-hour Holter ECG (HR max, HR min and HR mean).

Results A, B and D groups were characterized by a significantly higher average values of HR max and HR min, compared to the corresponding values obtained for the C group. It has been shown that longer duration of the arterial hypertension and higher diastolic blood pressure are independent risk factors increasing the HR mean in patients with arterial hypertension. It has also been shown that a longer period of staying away from smoking is an independent factor protecting against an increased HR mean in the D group.

Conclusions In patients with arterial hypertension, both active and passive smoking results in an increased heart rate. Giving up smoking may be a protective factor again stan increased HR mean.

Abstract

Background The epidemic of smoking and arterial hypertension is one of the most important health problems of the world. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke on the heart rate in patients with diagnosed arterial hypertension, who are active or passive smokers.

Material and methods A total of 223 persons were qualified for the research. The group of persons suffering from arterial hypertension was divided, on the basis of the cigarette smoking criterion, into the following groups: group A (n = 42) — active smokers; group B (n = 30) — passive smokers; group C (n = 34) — persons who are not exposed to cigarette smoke; group D (n = 26) — persons who have given up smoking. The maximum, minimum and mean heart rates were determined for each patient during the24-hour Holter ECG (HR max, HR min and HR mean).

Results A, B and D groups were characterized by a significantly higher average values of HR max and HR min, compared to the corresponding values obtained for the C group. It has been shown that longer duration of the arterial hypertension and higher diastolic blood pressure are independent risk factors increasing the HR mean in patients with arterial hypertension. It has also been shown that a longer period of staying away from smoking is an independent factor protecting against an increased HR mean in the D group.

Conclusions In patients with arterial hypertension, both active and passive smoking results in an increased heart rate. Giving up smoking may be a protective factor again stan increased HR mean.

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Keywords

active smoking, passive smoking, 24-hour Holter ECG, heart rate, arterial hypertension

About this article
Title

Effects of cigarette smoke on Holter ECG recordings in patients with arterial hypertension — the heart rate

Journal

Arterial Hypertension

Issue

Vol 17, No 5 (2013)

Pages

359-368

Published online

2014-01-24

Bibliographic record

Nadciśnienie tętnicze 2013;17(5):359-368.

Keywords

active smoking
passive smoking
24-hour Holter ECG
heart rate
arterial hypertension

Authors

Paweł Gać
Małgorzata Sobieszczańska

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