open access

Vol 8, No 3 (2004)
Prace oryginalne
Published online: 2004-06-04
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The influence of extensive, ambulatory, non-pharmacological treatment of obesity on blood pressure in 24-hour blood pressure monitoring

Elżbieta Kopeć, Krystyna Widecka, Barbara Krzyżanowska-Świniarska, Joanna Dziwura, Krystyna Pilarska
Nadciśnienie tętnicze 2004;8(3):159-167.

open access

Vol 8, No 3 (2004)
Prace oryginalne
Published online: 2004-06-04

Abstract

Background Obesity is one of main factors increasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Loosing 5 to 10% of body weight leads to decreased frequency of complications related to obesity. A principle of obesity management is non-pharmacological treatment: diet and physical exercise. In this study we evaluated an influence of such a treatment on anthropometric parameters, ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure values, insulin resistance and plasma insulin and leptin levels.
Material and methods The study group consisted of 43 individuals (30 women and 13 men) of average age 36 ± 7.7 years and body mass index (BMI): 36 ± 4.9 kg/m2, participating in dietary education (3-months dietary education course with dieticians and the diet limited to 400–600 kcal/day depending on a body mass), physical exercise programme (60 minutes of physical exercise at a gym hall twice a week and 45 minutes of swimming once a week) and medical control. The control group consisted of 17 individuals (12 women and 5 men), of average age 33 ± 7.57 years with BMI 36 ± 4.9 kg/m2, not willing to take part in the programme, but declaring dietary restrictions and increased physical activity on their own. In all patients anthropometric parameters were estimated as well as measurements of 24-hours ambulatory blood pressure values (ABPM), hormonal levels (plasma insulin, leptin) and insulin resistance with use of HOMA index. All measurements were performed at baseline and after one year. The study group was additionally evaluated after 3 months of the treatment.
Results At the baseline the study group and control group were normotensive and there were no differences in ABPM values. After 3 months of the study, in the study group slight but significant decrease in night-time systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed and then increase of these parameters up to the baseline values after one year observation. Also plasma insulin and leptin levels as well as insulin resistance decreased in the study group after 3 months of the active treatment and after next 9 months of observation the parameters returned to the baseline values. The active period of treatment had a beneficial influence on dippers/non-dippers parameter in the study group. There were positive correlations between plasma insulin levels at baseline and systolic blood pressure and between plasma leptin levels and heart rate.
Conclusions 1. A complex, ambulatory, non-pharmacological management of obesity in obese, normotensive individuals does not influence blood pressure values but it may lead to improvement in a diurnal blood pressure profile and change from non-dipper to dipper. 2. The return of plasma leptin and insulin to baseline levels after 9 months from the end of the active treatment period may be an unfavourable prognostic factor for maintaining a reduced body weight and a good blood pressure profile. It indicates a need for a cyclic repetition of the controlled programme in the patients concerned.

Abstract

Background Obesity is one of main factors increasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Loosing 5 to 10% of body weight leads to decreased frequency of complications related to obesity. A principle of obesity management is non-pharmacological treatment: diet and physical exercise. In this study we evaluated an influence of such a treatment on anthropometric parameters, ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure values, insulin resistance and plasma insulin and leptin levels.
Material and methods The study group consisted of 43 individuals (30 women and 13 men) of average age 36 ± 7.7 years and body mass index (BMI): 36 ± 4.9 kg/m2, participating in dietary education (3-months dietary education course with dieticians and the diet limited to 400–600 kcal/day depending on a body mass), physical exercise programme (60 minutes of physical exercise at a gym hall twice a week and 45 minutes of swimming once a week) and medical control. The control group consisted of 17 individuals (12 women and 5 men), of average age 33 ± 7.57 years with BMI 36 ± 4.9 kg/m2, not willing to take part in the programme, but declaring dietary restrictions and increased physical activity on their own. In all patients anthropometric parameters were estimated as well as measurements of 24-hours ambulatory blood pressure values (ABPM), hormonal levels (plasma insulin, leptin) and insulin resistance with use of HOMA index. All measurements were performed at baseline and after one year. The study group was additionally evaluated after 3 months of the treatment.
Results At the baseline the study group and control group were normotensive and there were no differences in ABPM values. After 3 months of the study, in the study group slight but significant decrease in night-time systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed and then increase of these parameters up to the baseline values after one year observation. Also plasma insulin and leptin levels as well as insulin resistance decreased in the study group after 3 months of the active treatment and after next 9 months of observation the parameters returned to the baseline values. The active period of treatment had a beneficial influence on dippers/non-dippers parameter in the study group. There were positive correlations between plasma insulin levels at baseline and systolic blood pressure and between plasma leptin levels and heart rate.
Conclusions 1. A complex, ambulatory, non-pharmacological management of obesity in obese, normotensive individuals does not influence blood pressure values but it may lead to improvement in a diurnal blood pressure profile and change from non-dipper to dipper. 2. The return of plasma leptin and insulin to baseline levels after 9 months from the end of the active treatment period may be an unfavourable prognostic factor for maintaining a reduced body weight and a good blood pressure profile. It indicates a need for a cyclic repetition of the controlled programme in the patients concerned.
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Keywords

obesity; cardiovascular complications; body mass loss; insulin; insulin resistance; leptin; blood pressure

About this article
Title

The influence of extensive, ambulatory, non-pharmacological treatment of obesity on blood pressure in 24-hour blood pressure monitoring

Journal

Arterial Hypertension

Issue

Vol 8, No 3 (2004)

Pages

159-167

Published online

2004-06-04

Bibliographic record

Nadciśnienie tętnicze 2004;8(3):159-167.

Keywords

obesity
cardiovascular complications
body mass loss
insulin
insulin resistance
leptin
blood pressure

Authors

Elżbieta Kopeć
Krystyna Widecka
Barbara Krzyżanowska-Świniarska
Joanna Dziwura
Krystyna Pilarska

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