English Polski
Vol 21 (2023): Continuous Publishing
Research paper
Published online: 2024-02-15

open access

Page views 330
Article views/downloads 135
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

The Polish version of the Perth Alexithymia Questionnaire-Short Form (PAQ-S): psychometric properties and norms

Paweł Larionow1, David A. Preece234, Karolina Mudło-Głagolska1
Journal of Sexual and Mental Health 2023;21.

Abstract

Alexithymia is a trait involving difficulties identifying feelings, difficulties describing feelings, and an externally orientated thinking style. It is an important risk factor for a range of psychopathologies, and its assessment is therefore important in research and clinical settings. Originally created in English, the Perth Alexithymia Questionnaire-Short Form (PAQ-S) is a brief 6-item self-report measure of alexithymia. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the first Polish version of the PAQ-S and to provide norms to help facilitate the interpretation of PAQ-S scores. Our sample was 1115 Polish-speaking adults (661 females, 438 males, and 16 non-binary gender) aged 18–72 from the general community in Poland. The PAQ-S’s factor structure and measurement invariance was explored with confirmatory factor analysis, and the convergent and divergent validity of the questionnaire was assessed via relationships with psychopathology symptoms and well-being. As expected, the Polish PAQ-S demonstrated strong factorial validity, and was invariant across age and gender. Convergent and divergent validity was also empirically supported, and internal consistency reliability was good. Overall, the Polish PAQ-S therefore appears to have strong psychometric properties much like the original English form, with its brief format being promising for allowing robust alexithymia assessments in a range of settings. Percentile rank norms and high alexithymia cut-off scores for Polish adults are presented.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file

References

  1. Preece D, Becerra R, Allan A, et al. Establishing the theoretical components of alexithymia via factor analysis: Introduction and validation of the attention-appraisal model of alexithymia. Personality and Individual Differences. 2017; 119: 341–352.
  2. Preece D, Gross J. Conceptualizing alexithymia. Pers Individ Differ. 2023; 215: 112375.
  3. Nemiah JC, Sifneos PE. Psychosomatic illness: a problem in communication. Psychother Psychosom. 1970; 18(1): 154–160.
  4. Preece DA, Mehta A, Becerra R, et al. Why is alexithymia a risk factor for affective disorder symptoms? The role of emotion regulation. J Affect Disord. 2022; 296: 337–341.
  5. Preece DA, Petrova K, Mehta A, et al. Why is alexithymia a risk factor for affective disorder symptoms? The role of emotion regulation. J Affect Disord. 2022; 296: 337–341.
  6. Fava GA, Cosci F, Sonino N. Current psychosomatic practice. Psychother Psychosom. 2017; 86(1): 13–30.
  7. Bagby RM, Taylor GJ, Parker JD. The Twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale—II. Convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity. J Psychosom Res. 1994; 38(1): 33–40.
  8. Bermond B, Clayton K, Liberova A, et al. A cognitive and an affective dimension of alexithymia in six languages and seven populations. Cogn Emot. 2007; 21(5): 1125–1136.
  9. Preece D, Becerra R, Robinson K, et al. The psychometric assessment of alexithymia: Development and validation of the Perth Alexithymia Questionnaire. Pers Individ Differ. 2018; 132: 32–44.
  10. Chan J, Becerra R, Weinborn M, et al. Assessing alexithymia across asian and western cultures: psychometric properties of the perth alexithymia questionnaire and toronto alexithymia scale-20 in singaporean and australian samples. J Pers Assess. 2023; 105(3): 396–412.
  11. Fynn DM, Preece DA, Gignac GE, et al. Assessing alexithymia in adults with acquired brain injury: Psychometric properties of the Perth Alexithymia Questionnaire. J Affect Disord. 2022; 302: 224–233.
  12. Kiskimska ND, Martínez-Sánchez F. Spanish Adaptation of the Perth Alexithymia Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties. Mediterr J Clin Psychol. 2023; 11(2).
  13. Mazidi M, Azizi A, Becerra R, et al. Cross-cultural validation and measurement invariance of the Perth Alexithymia Questionnaire (PAQ): a study in Iran and the USA. Australian Psychologist. 2023: 1–16.
  14. Lashkari A, Dehghani M, Sadeghi-Firoozabadi V, et al. Further support for the psychometric properties of the farsi version of perth alexithymia questionnaire. Front Psychol. 2021; 12: 657660.
  15. Preece DA, Becerra R, Allan A, et al. Assessing alexithymia: Psychometric properties of the Perth Alexithymia Questionnaire and 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale in United States adults. Personality and Individual Differences. 2020; 166: 110138.
  16. Greene D, Hasking P, Boyes M, et al. Measurement invariance of two measures of alexithymia in students who do and who do not engage in non-suicidal self-injury and risky drinking. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 2020; 42(4): 808–825.
  17. Ferguson CJ, Preece D, Schweitzer R. Alexithymia in autism spectrum disorder. Australian Psychologist. 2023; 58(2): 131–137.
  18. Becerra R, Baeza CG, Fernandez AM, et al. Assessing Alexithymia: Psychometric Properties of the Perth Alexithymia Questionnaire in a Spanish-Speaking Sample. Front Psychiatry. 2021; 12: 710398.
  19. Larionow P, Preece DA, Khokhlova O, et al. Assessing alexithymia: psychometric properties of the Russian version of the perth alexithymia questionnaire. Clinical Psychology and Special Education. 2023; 12(1): 43–65.
  20. Larionow P, Preece DA, Mudło-Głagolska K. Assessing alexithymia across negative and positive emotions: Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Perth Alexithymia Questionnaire. Front Psychiatry. 2022; 13: 1047191.
  21. Preece DA, Mehta A, Petrova K, et al. The Perth Alexithymia Questionnaire-Short Form (PAQ-S): A 6-item measure of alexithymia. J Affect Disord. 2023; 325: 493–501.
  22. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, et al. An ultra-brief screening scale for anxiety and depression: the PHQ-4. Psychosomatics. 2009; 50(6): 613–621.
  23. Larionow P, Mudło-Głagolska KK. The Patient Health Questionnaire–4: Factor Structure, Measurement Invariance, Latent Profile Analysis of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms and Screening Results in Polish Adults. Advances in Cognitive Psychology. 2023; 19(2): 123–137.
  24. Wellbeing measures in primary health care/the DepCare Project: report on a WHO meeting: Stockholm, Sweden, 12–13 February 1998. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/349766 (20.09.2023).
  25. Topp CW, Østergaard SD, Søndergaard S, et al. The WHO-5 Well-Being Index: a systematic review of the literature. Psychother Psychosom. 2015; 84(3): 167–176.
  26. Cichoń E, Kiejna A, Kokoszka A, et al. Validation of the Polish version of WHO-5 as a screening instrument for depression in adults with diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020; 159: 107970.
  27. Larionow P. Anxiety and Depression Screening Among Polish Adults in 2023: Depression Levels Are Higher Than in Cancer Patients. Psychiatria. 2023; [Ahead of Print].
  28. Hu L, Bentler P. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Modeling. 1999; 6(1): 1–55.
  29. Cheung GW, Rensvold RB. Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Struct Equ Modeling. 2002; 9(2): 233–255.
  30. Groth-Marnat G. Handbook of Psychological Assessment (5th Edition). John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken 2009.
  31. López-Martín E, Ardura D. El tamaño del efecto en la publicación científica. Educación XX1. 2023; 26(1): 9–17.
  32. Lenhard W, Lenhard A. Calculation of Effect Sizes. Psychometrica. https://www.psychometrica.de/effect_size.html (25.05.2023).
  33. Baumgartner T. Tutorial: calculating percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2009; 13(4): 227–233.
  34. Flanagan DP, Caltabiano LF. Test Scores: A Guide to Understanding and Using Test Results. In: Canter AS, Paige LZ, Roth MD, Romero I, Carroll SA. ed. Helping Children at Home and School II: Handouts for Families and Educators. National Association of School Psychologists : 81–84.
  35. Putnick DL, Bornstein MH. Measurement invariance conventions and reporting: the state of the art and future directions for psychological research. Dev Rev. 2016; 41: 71–90.
  36. Larionow P, Mudło-Głagolska K. Assessment of activation, intensity and duration of positive and negative emotions: psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Perth Emotional Reactivity Scale – Short Form. Current Issues in Personality Psychology. 2022.
  37. Larionow P, Preece D, Mudło-Głagolska K. Psychometric Properties of the Polish Version of the Perth Emotional Reactivity Scale. Int J Cogn Ther. 2023; 16(3): 460–478.
  38. Larionow P, Mudło-Głagolska K, Michalak M. Towards psychosomatic medicine: psychometric properties of the polish version of the giessen subjective complaints list (GBB-8) and the prevalence of somatic symptoms in a polish community sample. Ann Univ Mariae Curie-Skłodowska Lub.-Pol. J. 2023; 35(4): 117–138.
  39. Salles BM, Maturana de Souza W, Dos Santos VA, et al. Effects of DBT-based interventions on alexithymia: a systematic review. Cogn Behav Ther. 2023; 52(2): 110–131.
  40. Samur D, Tops M, Schlinkert C, et al. Four decades of research on alexithymia: moving toward clinical applications. Front Psychol. 2013; 4: 861.



Journal of Sexual and Mental Health