Vol 25, No 2 (2020)
Original research articles
Published online: 2020-03-01

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Feasibility of 4D CT simulation with synchronized intravenous contrast injection in hepatocellular carcinoma

Anil Gupta1, Rishabh Kumar1, Hanuman Prasad Yadav1, Manik Sharma1, Rose Kamal1, Deepak Thaper1, Prabir Banik1, Shipra Gupta1, Kartik Saroha2, Sandeep Singh2, Shiv Kumar Sarin3
DOI: 10.1016/j.rpor.2019.12.006
Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2020;25(2):293-298.



Delivering Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is challenging mainly for two reasons: first, motion of the liver occurs in six degrees of freedom and, second, delineation of the tumor is difficult owing to a similar density of HCC to that of the adjoining healthy liver tissue in a non-contrast CT scan. To overcome both these challenges simultaneously, we performed a feasibility study to synchronize intravenous contrast to obtain an arterial and a delayed phase 4D CT.

Materials and Methods

We included seven HCC patients of planned for SBRT. 4D CT simulation was performed with synchronized intravenous contrast based on the formula TSCAN DELAY = Tpeak – (L0/Detector Coverage × Cine Duration in Seconds). This was followed by a delayed 4D CT scan.


We found that, with our protocol, it is feasible to obtain a 4DCT with an arterial and a delayed phase making it comparable to a diagnostic multi-phase CT. The peak HU of the 4D scan and diagnostic CT were similar (mean peak HU 134.2 vs 143.1, p value = 0.58 N.S). Whereas in comparison with a non-contrast CT a significant rise in the peak HU was seen (mean peak 134.2 vs 61.4 p value = .00003).


A synchronized contrast 4D CT simulation for HCC is safe and feasible. It results in good contrast enhancement comparable to a diagnostic 3D contrast CT scan.

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Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy