open access

Vol 7, No 3 (2002)
Original papers
Published online: 2002-01-01
Submitted: 2001-02-14
Get Citation

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the first and second complete remission conditioned with fractionated total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide or etoposide

Jacek Wachowiak, Julian Malicki, Dariusz Buczkowski, Grażyna Stryczyńska, Grażyna Kosicka, Michał Leda, Anna Pieczonka
DOI: 10.1016/S1507-1367(02)70986-3
·
Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2002;7(3):117-125.

open access

Vol 7, No 3 (2002)
Original papers
Published online: 2002-01-01
Submitted: 2001-02-14

Abstract

Patients and methods

From 1993 to 2001 thirty-two children underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (12 in I complete remission /I CR/of high-risk/HR/ALL, and 20 in II CR after early bone marrow or combined bone marrow/organ relapse). Except for two syngeneic all others were matched sibling donor transplants. All patients (pts) were conditioned with fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) at a total dose of 12,6 Gy, given in 8 fractions during 4 days with lung shielding (9,4 Gy) and cyclophosphamide (CY) 60 mg/kg i.v for 2 days (total dose 120 mg/kg) (n = 1 in I CR and n = 11 in II CR) or etoposide (VP) 60 mg/kg i.v (n = 11 in I CR and n = 9 in II CR). Patients in I CR were given 1,1–4,9×108 nucleated cells /kg (med. 2,7×108/kg), while pts in II CR 1,9–4,0×108 nucleated cells/kg (med. 2,7×108/kg). For graft versus host disease (GvHD) prevention cyclosporin A (CsA) 3 mg/kg/d i.v was administered alone in 22 pts (n = 9 in I CR and n = 13 in II CR) or in combination with “short” methotrexate +/− prednisone in 8 pts (n = 3 in I CR and n = 5 in II CR). Two pts transplanted with syngeneic BM received no GvHD prevention. The regimen related toxicity (RRT) was graded according to the system developed by Bearman et al. (1988).

Results

Only mild or moderate expression of RRT was observed (GI toxicity I0 – 80%, II0 – 4%; stomatitis I0 – 40%, II0 – 20%; hepatic toxicity I0 – 28%; renal, bladder and cardiac toxicity I0 – 4%) and no transplant related deaths occurred (TRM = 0%). Among 12 pts transplanted in I CR only one child relapsed 4 months from BMT, while the remaining 11 pts are alive in continuous complete remission (CCR) with a median follow-up of 33 months (range 6 to 66 months) and 92% probability of a 5-year event free survival (pEFS). Of 20 children transplanted in II CR 6 relapsed 1–14 months from BMT (median 6,5 months). Thirteen of them remain in CCR with a median follow-up of 19.5 months (range 1 to 96 months) and with 66% probability of a 8-year EFS.

Conclusions

1. In children with ALL the FTBI-12,6 Gy-containing regimen is well tolerated without life-threatening toxic complications. 2. The FTBI-12,6 Gy-containing regimen demonstrates very good antileukaemic efficacy for HR-ALL in I CR, but only limited efficacy for ALL in II CR. 3. In the context of good tolerance of FTBI in a total dose of 12,6 Gy and its limited antileukaemic efficacy in children with ALL in II CR the escalation of FTBI total dose from 12,6 Gy to at least 13,2 Gy appears to be justified in those children.

Abstract

Patients and methods

From 1993 to 2001 thirty-two children underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (12 in I complete remission /I CR/of high-risk/HR/ALL, and 20 in II CR after early bone marrow or combined bone marrow/organ relapse). Except for two syngeneic all others were matched sibling donor transplants. All patients (pts) were conditioned with fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) at a total dose of 12,6 Gy, given in 8 fractions during 4 days with lung shielding (9,4 Gy) and cyclophosphamide (CY) 60 mg/kg i.v for 2 days (total dose 120 mg/kg) (n = 1 in I CR and n = 11 in II CR) or etoposide (VP) 60 mg/kg i.v (n = 11 in I CR and n = 9 in II CR). Patients in I CR were given 1,1–4,9×108 nucleated cells /kg (med. 2,7×108/kg), while pts in II CR 1,9–4,0×108 nucleated cells/kg (med. 2,7×108/kg). For graft versus host disease (GvHD) prevention cyclosporin A (CsA) 3 mg/kg/d i.v was administered alone in 22 pts (n = 9 in I CR and n = 13 in II CR) or in combination with “short” methotrexate +/− prednisone in 8 pts (n = 3 in I CR and n = 5 in II CR). Two pts transplanted with syngeneic BM received no GvHD prevention. The regimen related toxicity (RRT) was graded according to the system developed by Bearman et al. (1988).

Results

Only mild or moderate expression of RRT was observed (GI toxicity I0 – 80%, II0 – 4%; stomatitis I0 – 40%, II0 – 20%; hepatic toxicity I0 – 28%; renal, bladder and cardiac toxicity I0 – 4%) and no transplant related deaths occurred (TRM = 0%). Among 12 pts transplanted in I CR only one child relapsed 4 months from BMT, while the remaining 11 pts are alive in continuous complete remission (CCR) with a median follow-up of 33 months (range 6 to 66 months) and 92% probability of a 5-year event free survival (pEFS). Of 20 children transplanted in II CR 6 relapsed 1–14 months from BMT (median 6,5 months). Thirteen of them remain in CCR with a median follow-up of 19.5 months (range 1 to 96 months) and with 66% probability of a 8-year EFS.

Conclusions

1. In children with ALL the FTBI-12,6 Gy-containing regimen is well tolerated without life-threatening toxic complications. 2. The FTBI-12,6 Gy-containing regimen demonstrates very good antileukaemic efficacy for HR-ALL in I CR, but only limited efficacy for ALL in II CR. 3. In the context of good tolerance of FTBI in a total dose of 12,6 Gy and its limited antileukaemic efficacy in children with ALL in II CR the escalation of FTBI total dose from 12,6 Gy to at least 13,2 Gy appears to be justified in those children.

Get Citation

Keywords

acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; fractionated total body irradiation; allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

About this article
Title

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the first and second complete remission conditioned with fractionated total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide or etoposide

Journal

Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy

Issue

Vol 7, No 3 (2002)

Pages

117-125

Published online

2002-01-01

DOI

10.1016/S1507-1367(02)70986-3

Bibliographic record

Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2002;7(3):117-125.

Keywords

acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
fractionated total body irradiation
allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

Authors

Jacek Wachowiak
Julian Malicki
Dariusz Buczkowski
Grażyna Stryczyńska
Grażyna Kosicka
Michał Leda
Anna Pieczonka

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland
tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, fax:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail: journals@viamedica.pl