Vol 8, No 1 (2022)
Research paper
Published online: 2022-06-17

open access

Page views 4326
Article views/downloads 268
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

The use of selected parameters of the mini-golf game for screening the motor assessment of children for Developmental Coordination Disorder — preliminary report

Kinga Litwin1, Anna Kostiukow1, Piotr Poniewierski1, Dominika Janowska1, Karolina Biel1, Włodzimierz Samborski1
Rheumatology Forum 2022;8(1):14-26.


Introduction: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affects from about 6% to even 8% of children. In Poland, this disorder is still very rarely diagnosed despite the existing motor problems in children. This may be due to a lack of awareness and knowledge about DCD. Education in this direction is recommended. Diagnostic criteria The DSM-V include: the achievement of motor skills manifested by clumsiness is inadequate to age, the influence of motor difficulties on the activities of daily living, the onset of symptoms in the early period, and the lack of explanation of the motor deficits present by disability.

Aim: The study aimed to screen children for early symptoms of motor disorders characteristic of Developmental Coordination Disorder. It was assessed whether there are correlations between the results of the ABC-2 and BOT-2 motor tests and the results of the mini-golf set created for the study.

Material and methods: 200 primary school children were tested using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children Second Edition (ABC-2), Bruininks- Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency Second Edition (BOT-2) motor tests and a mini-golf set designed for the study. The obtained results were subject to statistical analysis.

Results: The ABC-2 test showed that 87.5% of children had no motor difficulties. On the other hand, the remaining 12.5% have motor difficulties. In the results of the BOT 2-58%, there are no difficulties or they are insignificant, and significant difficulties are presented in 42%. The greater the overall BOT 2 score, the greater the average impact force. Additionally, it has been noticed that the larger the Aiming and Catching is, the lower the Average Impact Force. And the greater the Fine Manual Control, the lower the Average Ball Speed and Average Stroke Force.

Conclusions: The difficulties examined in parametric tests are confirmed by the difficulties of the subjects with mini-golf. Thanks to the game of minigolf on a specially prepared field, you can explore; the number of strokes to place the ball in the hole, average ball speed, average impact force, the force of hitting the ball with the dominant and non-dominant upper limb. The assessed parameters can be used for the motor screening assessment of children.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. Dannemiller L, Mueller M, Leitner A, et al. Physical Therapy Management of Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder: An Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline From the Academy of Pediatric Physical Therapy of the American Physical Therapy Association. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2020; 32(4): 278–313.
  2. Biotteau M, Albaret JM, Chaix Y. Developmental coordination disorder. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 2020: 3–20.
  3. American Psychiatric Association, American Psychiatric Association, editors. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. 5th ed. D. American Psychiatric Association, Washington 2013: 947.
  4. Duffy J, McLaulin JB. Psychiatry Specialty Board Review For The DSM-IV. Routledge 2013: 131.
  5. Ahonen T, Kooistra L, Viholainen H, Cantell M. Developmental motor disorders: A neuropsychological perspective. Developmental Motor Learning Disability: A Neuropsychological Approach. 2004: 265–290.
  6. Kirby A, Sugden DA. Children with developmental coordination disorders. J R Soc Med. 2007; 100(4): 182–186.
  7. Crespo-Eguílaz N, Magallón S, Narbona J. Procedural skills and neurobehavioral freedom. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014; 8: 449.
  8. Lingam R, Jongmans MJ, Ellis M, et al. Mental health difficulties in children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatrics. 2012; 129(4): e882–e891.
  9. Developmental Coordination Disorder: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/915251-overview (15 January 2022).
  10. Lee K, Jung T, Lee DoK, et al. A comparison of using the DSM-5 and MABC-2 for estimating the developmental coordination disorder prevalence in Korean children. Res Dev Disabil. 2019; 94: 103459.
  11. Blank R, Barnett AL, Cairney J, et al. International clinical practice recommendations on the definition, diagnosis, assessment, intervention, and psychosocial aspects of developmental coordination disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2019; 61(3): 242–285.
  12. Bonney E, Aertssen W, Smits-Engelsman B. Psychometric properties of field-based anaerobic capacity tests in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. Disabil Rehabil. 2019; 41(15): 1803–1814.
  13. van der Linde BW, van Netten JJ, Otten BE, et al. Psychometric properties of the DCDDaily-Q: a new parental questionnaire on children's performance in activities of daily living. Res Dev Disabil. 2014; 35(7): 1711–1719.
  14. Braaksma P, Stuive I, Boomsma H, et al. We12BFit!-Improving lifestyle physical activity in children aged 7-12 years with developmental coordination disorder: protocol of a multicentre single-arm mixed-method study. BMJ Open. 2018; 8(6): e020367.
  15. Cermak SA, Stein Duker LI, Williams ME, et al. Feasibility of a sensory-adapted dental environment for children with autism. Am J Occup Ther. 2015; 69(3): 6903220020p1–690322002010.
  16. Smits-Engelsman B, Vinçon S, Blank R, et al. Evaluating the evidence for motor-based interventions in developmental coordination disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Res Dev Disabil. 2018; 74: 72–102.
  17. Li YC, Wu SK, Cairney J, et al. Motor coordination and health-related physical fitness of children with developmental coordination disorder: a three-year follow-up study. Res Dev Disabil. 2011; 32(6): 2993–3002.
  18. Dunford C. Goal-orientated group intervention for children with developmental coordination disorder. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2011; 31(3): 288–300.
  19. Farmer M, Echenne B, Drouin R, et al. Insights in Developmental Coordination Disorder. Curr Pediatr Rev. 2017; 13(2): 111–119.
  20. Zwicker JG, Missiuna C, Harris SR, et al. Developmental coordination disorder: a review and update. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2012; 16(6): 573–581.
  21. Hunt J, Zwicker JG, Godecke E, et al. Awareness and knowledge of developmental coordination disorder: A survey of caregivers, teachers, allied health professionals and medical professionals in Australia. Child Care Health Dev. 2021; 47(2): 174–183.
  22. Smith M, Banwell HA, Ward E, et al. Determining the clinical knowledge and practice of Australian podiatrists on children with developmental coordination disorder: a cross-sectional survey. J Foot Ankle Res. 2019; 12: 42.
  23. Karkling M, Paul A, Zwicker JG. Occupational therapists' awareness of guidelines for assessment and diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder: Mesure selon laquelle les ergothérapeutes connaissent les lignes directrices relatives à l'évaluation et au diagnostic du trouble du développement de la coordination. Can J Occup Ther. 2017; 84(3): 148–157.
  24. Novak C, Lingam R, Coad J, et al. 'Providing more scaffolding': parenting a child with developmental co-ordination disorder, a hidden disability. Child Care Health Dev. 2012; 38(6): 829–835.
  25. Camden C, Wilson B, Kirby A, et al. Best practice principles for management of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD): results of a scoping review. Child Care Health Dev. 2015; 41(1): 147–159.
  26. Sit CHP, Yu JJ, Wong SHS, et al. A school-based physical activity intervention for children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Res Dev Disabil. 2019; 89: 1–9.
  27. Hession CE, Law Smith MJ, Watterson D, et al. The Impact of Equine Therapy and an Audio-Visual Approach Emphasizing Rhythm and Beat Perception in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. J Altern Complement Med. 2019; 25(5): 535–541.
  28. Yam TT, Wong MS, Fong SS. Effect of Kinesio taping on electromyographic activity of leg muscles during gait in children with developmental coordination disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(6): e14423.
  29. Mentiplay BF, FitzGerald TL, Clark RA, et al. Do video game interventions improve motor outcomes in children with developmental coordination disorder? A systematic review using the ICF framework. BMC Pediatr. 2019; 19(1): 22.
  30. Howie EK, Campbell AC, Abbott RA, et al. Understanding why an active video game intervention did not improve motor skill and physical activity in children with developmental coordination disorder: A quantity or quality issue? Res Dev Disabil. 2017; 60: 1–12.
  31. Straker L, Howie E, Smith A, et al. A crossover randomised and controlled trial of the impact of active video games on motor coordination and perceptions of physical ability in children at risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder. Hum Mov Sci. 2015; 42: 146–160.
  32. Miles CAL, Wood G, Vine SJ, et al. Quiet eye training facilitates visuomotor coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. Res Dev Disabil. 2015; 40: 31–41.
  33. Bieber E, Smits-Engelsman BCM, Sgandurra G, et al. A new protocol for assessing action observation and imitation abilities in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A feasibility and reliability study. Hum Mov Sci. 2021; 75: 102717.
  34. Nowotnik A. Funkcjonowanie uwagi a poziom umiejętności czytania u dzieci w wieku wczesnoszkolnym. Edukacja. 2013; 121(1): 37–53.
  35. Warlop G, Vansteenkiste P, Lenoir M, et al. Gaze behaviour during walking in young adults with developmental coordination disorder. Hum Mov Sci. 2020; 71: 102616.
  36. Parr JVV, Foster RJ, Wood G, et al. Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder Show Altered Visuomotor Control During Stair Negotiation Associated With Heightened State Anxiety. Front Hum Neurosci. 2020; 14: 589502.
  37. Borkowska A. Impulsywność poznawcza w zespole ADHD. Psychologia Rozwojowa. 2005;10(3). http://cejsh.icm.edu.pl/cejsh/element/bwmeta1.element.ojs-issn-2084-3879-year-2005-volume-10-issue-3-article-2957 (15 January 2022).