Vol 10, No 1 (2024)
Review paper
Published online: 2024-01-24

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Influence of inflammation on tryptophan metabolism in chronic rheumatic diseases: the role of the kynurenine pathway in an interferon-dependent mechanism in systemic lupus erythematosus and primary Sjögren's syndrome — a literature review

Joanna Witoszyńska-Sobkowiak1, Dorota Sikorska1, Włodzimierz Samborski1
Rheumatology Forum 2024;10(1):17-25.

Abstract

Under physiological conditions, the metabolism of tryptophan (TRP), an endogenous amino acid, leads to the formation of the neurotransmitters regulating mood and sleep and wakefulness patterns — serotonin and melatonin, among others. In inflammation, it is metabolised predominantly along the kynurenine pathway. This is caused by activation by pro-inflammatory cytokines [e.g. interferon (IFN) or tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)] of one of the enzymes: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which catabolises the synthesis of kynurenine (KYN) from TRP. Products of the kynurenine pathway, such as KYN, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid, are neuroactive and immunomodulatory substances. Elevated IFN levels and increased IDO activity are characteristic of chronic autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome. This article reports on the role of the kynurenine pathway in the above diseases.

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