open access

Vol 4, No 3 (2007)
Review paper
Published online: 2007-06-11
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Factors contributing to the incidence of adverse drug reactions in a course of therapy with zolpidem

Wiesław Jerzy Cubała
Psychiatria 2007;4(3):124-127.

open access

Vol 4, No 3 (2007)
Prace poglądowe - nadesłane
Published online: 2007-06-11

Abstract

Zolpidem is a short acting hypnotic drug belonging to imidazopyridine family. It produces its hypnotic effects via the GABA-A benzodiazepine receptor complex and binds preferentially to those receptors containing the alpha-1 subunit. In comparison with benzodiazepines this mechanism is thought to reduce liability to induce dependence. However, several case reports of zolpidem abuse and dependence have been published along with a small number cases demonstrating seizures after sudden zolpidem withdrawal. At higher doses the clinical effects of zolpidem seem to be comparable to those of benzodiazepines and abuse, dependence and withdrawal seizures belong to the spectrum of its adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The susceptibility factors for adverse drug reactions include pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic issues. Moreover, an important issue of patients’ sex as the susceptibility factor for ADRs is addressed. The paper briefly discusses that issue and emphasizes role of susceptibility factors for zolpidem ADRs with regard to efficacy and safety in scope of patient’s zolpidem pharmacotherapy.

Abstract

Zolpidem is a short acting hypnotic drug belonging to imidazopyridine family. It produces its hypnotic effects via the GABA-A benzodiazepine receptor complex and binds preferentially to those receptors containing the alpha-1 subunit. In comparison with benzodiazepines this mechanism is thought to reduce liability to induce dependence. However, several case reports of zolpidem abuse and dependence have been published along with a small number cases demonstrating seizures after sudden zolpidem withdrawal. At higher doses the clinical effects of zolpidem seem to be comparable to those of benzodiazepines and abuse, dependence and withdrawal seizures belong to the spectrum of its adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The susceptibility factors for adverse drug reactions include pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic issues. Moreover, an important issue of patients’ sex as the susceptibility factor for ADRs is addressed. The paper briefly discusses that issue and emphasizes role of susceptibility factors for zolpidem ADRs with regard to efficacy and safety in scope of patient’s zolpidem pharmacotherapy.
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Keywords

zolpidem; dependence; abuse; withdrawal; pharmacotherapy; pharmacokinetics; adverse drug reaction

About this article
Title

Factors contributing to the incidence of adverse drug reactions in a course of therapy with zolpidem

Journal

Psychiatria (Psychiatry)

Issue

Vol 4, No 3 (2007)

Article type

Review paper

Pages

124-127

Published online

2007-06-11

Bibliographic record

Psychiatria 2007;4(3):124-127.

Keywords

zolpidem
dependence
abuse
withdrawal
pharmacotherapy
pharmacokinetics
adverse drug reaction

Authors

Wiesław Jerzy Cubała

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