Vol 78, No 5 (2020)
Original article
Published online: 2020-03-24

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Relationship among the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, systemic inflammation, and anisocytosis in well-controlled type 2 diabetic patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

Paweł Rostoff, Aleksander Siniarski, Maciej Haberka, Ewa Konduracka, Jadwiga Nessler, Grzegorz Gajos
Pubmed: 32210218
Kardiol Pol 2020;78(5):420-428.

Abstract

Background: Previous studies have shown that red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The mechanisms underlying increased anisocytosis in patients with T2D and confirmed ASCVD remain poorly understood.

Aims: We sought to evaluate the relationship among the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, systemic low -grade inflammation, and RDW in optimally treated patients with T2D and established ASCVD.

Methods: A total of 68 patients, aged 47 to 85 years (mean [SD], 65.3 [6.8] years) and including 21 women (30.9%), were enrolled and grouped according to median RDW into those with RDW < 13.5% (n = 33) and those with RDW ≥13.5% (n = 35).

Results: Patients with RDW ≥13.5% had a significantly higher median (interquartile range [IQR]) serum leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (1.7 [0.49–2.3] ng/μg vs 0.66 [0.31–1.25] ng/μg; P = 0.04) and median (IQR) tumor necrosis factor α levels (1.58 [1.42–1.97] pg/ml vs 1.39 [1.18–1.57] pg/ml; P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in the concentrations of other inflammatory markers. The leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (r = 0.25; P = 0.04) and levels of tumor necrosis factor α (r = 0.32; P = 0.01) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (r = 0.31; P = 0.01) were positively correlated with RDW, which was confirmed by univariate linear regression analysis. A multivariable regression model, which included demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, showed that white blood cell count (β = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.05–0.45; P = 0.01), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 levels (β = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.02–0.41; P = 0.03), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), (β = –0.48; 95% CI, 0.67 to –0.28; P < 0.001) were independent predictors of RDW in our patients.

Conclusions: In well-controlled patients with T2D and ASCVD, the RDW values are associated with leptin-to-adiponectin imbalance and selected inflammatory markers.

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Polish Heart Journal (Kardiologia Polska)