Vol 16, No 3 (2022)
Research paper
Published online: 2022-07-22

open access

Page views 3888
Article views/downloads 249
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Assessment and acceptance of cancer in prostate cancer patients

Agata Wolanin1
Palliat Med Pract 2022;16(3):134-141.


Background: Malignant prostate cancer is associated with many negative psychological consequences
in patients. Therefore, it is reasonable to explore intensity of the acceptance of cancer and the factors
that determine its level. This study aims to determine which types of the appraisal of illness predict the
acceptance of illness and to what extent.
Patients and methods: This study was conducted in a group of forty-five prostate cancer inpatients
for radiotherapy. The following tools measuring the appraisal of illness and acceptance of illness were
used: the Disease-Related Appraisals Scale (DRAS) by Janowski, Steuden, Kurylowicz and Nieśpiałowska-
Steuden, and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS) by Janowski and Steuden.
Results: Higher levels of satisfaction with life despite the disease were associated with a lower level of
appraisal of illness as an obstacle/loss, a lower sense of harm and a greater tendency to interpret illness
as a value. Reconcilement with the disease was negatively associated with the appraisal of illness as
a threat and obstacle/loss. Self-distancing from the disease was negatively associated with the appraisal
of illness as a threat and significant situation. The overall acceptance of illness score was negatively
associated with the appraisal of illness as a threat and significant situation.
Conclusions: The appraisal of illness as a challenge and obstacle/loss was the most common predictor of
the acceptance of illness in prostate cancer patients. A greater level of appraisal of illness as a challenge
contributes to a greater level of acceptance of illness in patients. A lower level of appraisal of illness as
an obstacle/loss contributes to a greater level of acceptance of illness in prostate cancer patients.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. Borówka A., Fijuth J., Potemski P. Rak gruczołu krokowego. In: Stelmach A., Potemski P. [eds.]. Nowotwory układu moczowo-płciowego. In: Zalecenia postępowania diagnostyczno–terapeutycznego w nowotworach złośliwych 2021 rok. Polish Society of Clinical Oncology, 335–352. . https://ptok.pl/aktualne-zalecenia-i-standardy (24 March 2022).
  2. Kordek R, Sosnowski M, Potemski P. Rak gruczołu krokowego. In: Jassem J, Kordek R. ed. Onkologia. Podręcznik dla studentów i lekarzy. Via Medica, Gdańsk 2019: 262–267.
  3. Didkowska J, Wojciechowska U, Olasek P, dos Santos FC, Michałek I. Nowotwory złośliwe w Polsce w 2019 roku. Polish National Cancer Registry, Maria Skłodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Warsaw 2021.
  4. The Global Cancer Observatory, 2020. https://gco.iarc.fr/ (13 April 2022).
  5. Cliff AM, MacDonagh RP. Psychosocial morbidity in prostate cancer: II. A comparison of patients and partners. BJU Int. 2000; 86(7): 834–839.
  6. Cherrier MM, Aubin S, Higano CS. Cognitive and mood changes in men undergoing intermittent combined androgen blockade for non-metastatic prostate cancer. Psychooncology. 2009; 18(3): 237–247.
  7. Roth AI, González-Restrepo A. Genitourinary Malignancies. In: Roth AI, González–Restrepo AG, Breitbart WS, Jacobsen PB, Loscalzo MJ, McCorkle R, Butow PN. ed. Psycho-Oncology. 3 ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2015: 114–120.
  8. Wade J, Rosario DJ, Macefield RC, et al. Psychological impact of prostate biopsy: physical symptoms, anxiety, and depression. J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31(33): 4235–4241.
  9. Awsare NS, Green JSA, Aldwinckle B, et al. The measurement of psychological distress in men being investigated for the presence of prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2008; 11(4): 384–389.
  10. Nelson C, Gilley J, Roth A. The impact of a cancer diagnosis on sexual health. In: Mulhall J. ed. Cancer and Sexual Health. Humana Press, New York 2011: 407–414.
  11. Alsadius D, Olsson C, Pettersson N, et al. Perception of body odor – an overlooked consequence of long-term gastrointestinal and urinary symptoms after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. J Cancer Surviv. 2013; 7(4): 652–658.
  12. Kornblith AB, Herr HW, Ofman US, et al. Quality of life of patients with prostate cancer and their spouses. The value of a data base in clinical care. Cancer. 1994; 73(11): 2791–2802, doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(19940601)73:11<2791::aid-cncr2820731123>3.0.co;2-9.
  13. Loprinzi CL, Sloan JA, Stearns V, et al. Newer antidepressants and gabapentin for hot flashes: An individual subject pooled analysis. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2008; 26(Suppl. 15 ): 9537–9537.
  14. Roth AJ, Rosenfeld B, Kornblith AB, et al. The memorial anxiety scale for prostate cancer: validation of a new scale to measure anxiety in men with with prostate cancer. Cancer. 2003; 97(11): 2910–2918.
  15. Mehnert A, Lehmann C, Graefen M, et al. Depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder and health-related quality of life and its association with social support in ambulatory prostate cancer patients. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2010; 19(6): 736–745.
  16. Christie KM, Meyerowitz BE, Giedzinska-Simons A, et al. Predictors of affect following treatment decision-making for prostate cancer: conversations, cognitive processing, and coping. Psychooncology. 2009; 18(5): 508–514.
  17. Wolanin A. Selected Variables Related To The Quality Of Life In Cancer. Humanities and Social Sciences quarterly. 2021; 28(2): 101–112.
  18. Janowski K, Steuden S, Kuryłowicz J, Nieśpiałowska-Steuden M. The Disease–Related Appraisals Scale. A tool to measure subjective perception of the disease situation. In: Janowski K, Steuden S. ed. Biopsychosocial aspects of health and disease Vol. 1. Centrum Psychoedukacji i Pomocy Psychologicznej, Lublin 2009: 108–125.
  19. Lazarus RS, Folkman S. Stress, Appraisal and Coping. Springer, New York 1984.
  20. McCrae RR. Situational determinants of coping responses: loss, threat, and challenge. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1984; 46(4): 919–928.
  21. Bjorck J, Hopp D, Jones L. Prostate Cancer and Emotional Functioning: Effects of mental adjustment, optimism, and appraisal. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology. 1999; 17(1): 71–85.
  22. Ahmad MM, Musil CM, Zauszniewski JA, et al. Prostate cancer: appraisal, coping, and health status. J Gerontol Nurs. 2005; 31(10): 34–43.
  23. Janowski K, Kurpas D, Kusz J, et al. Health-related behavior, profile of health locus of control and acceptance of illness in patients suffering from chronic somatic diseases. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5): e63920.
  24. Basińska MA, Kasprzak A. Związek między strategiami radzenia sobie ze stresem a akceptacją choroby w grupie osób chorych na łuszczycę. Przegląd Dermatologiczny. 2012; 99(6): 692–700.
  25. Lipowski ZJ. Psychosocial reactions to physical illness. Can Med Assoc J. 1983; 128(9): 1069–1072.
  26. Janowski K, Steuden S. Skala Akceptacji Życia z Chorobą. Wersja eksperymentalna. John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Lublin 2007.
  27. Czerw AI, Religioni U, Deptała A, et al. Pain, acceptance of illness, adjustment to life with cancer and coping strategies in prostate cancer patients. Arch Med Sci. 2017; 13(6): 1459–1466.
  28. Watts S, Leydon G, Birch B, et al. Depression and anxiety in prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence rates. BMJ Open. 2014; 4(3): e003901.
  29. Curtis R, Groarke A, Sullivan F. Stress and self-efficacy predict psychological adjustment at diagnosis of prostate cancer. Sci Rep. 2014; 4: 5569.
  30. Pascoe EC, Edvardsson D. Which coping strategies can predict beneficial feelings associated with prostate cancer? J Clin Nurs. 2016; 25(17-18): 2569–2578.
  31. Feros DL, Lane L, Ciarrochi J, et al. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for improving the lives of cancer patients: a preliminary study. Psychooncology. 2013; 22(2): 459–464.
  32. González-Fernández S, Fernández-Rodríguez C. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Cancer: Review of Applications and Findings. Behav Med. 2019; 45(3): 255–269.
  33. Pirnia B, Golshani G. Comparison of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) On the Severity of Fatigue, Improvement of Sleep Quality and Resilience in a Patient with Prostate Cancer: A Single-Case Experimental Study. Int J Cancer Manage. 2019; 12(2): e88416.

Palliative Medicine in Practice