Vol 6 (2021): Continuous Publishing
Original paper
Published online: 2021-09-28

open access

Page views 6233
Article views/downloads 388
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Development and first assessment of a RGBW-LED diaphanoscope

Johannes Busshardt1, Nicole Sieber1, Philipp Koelbl1, Christian Lingenfelder2, Martin Hessling1
Ophthalmol J 2021;6:101-106.


Background: Diaphanoscopy is an old but still useful technique in ophthalmic diagnostics. Its application suffers somewhat from the fact that the light is strongly attenuated and red-shifted in color when the eye wall is transilluminated.

Material and methods: A color adjustable diaphanoscope prototype is developed based on a powerful red-green-blue-white light-emitting diode (RGBW-LED). Its optical and thermal properties are measured and tested on the porcine eyes of a local butcher. In addition, based on the technical data, the assumed retinal hazard to human eyes is assessed according to the standard DIN EN ISO 15004-2: 2007-6.

Results: The investigated porcine eyes were brightly illuminated with all LED colors. The calculated values for judging the thermal and photochemical hazard were below the limits given in DIN EN ISO 15004-2: 2007-6.

Conclusion: Based on the standard mentioned above, there is no recognizable danger to the human retina when applied for a limited time, and at least in the porcine model, the presented RGBW-LED diaphanoscope allows an adjustable ophthalmological transillumination without the requirement of the more elaborated devices that are usually employed in operating rooms.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. Koch FHJ, Deuchler S, Singh P, et al. [Ophthalmic diaphanoscopy]. Ophthalmologe. 2017; 114(9): 857–864.
  2. Hirschberg J. Zur Diagnose des Aderhautsarkoms. Clin Bl f Augenheilk. 1905; 1905: 329–39.
  3. Lange O. Zur Diagnose des intraokularen Sarkoms. Klin Mbl Augenheilk. 1884; 1888: 410.
  4. Langenhan F. Ohthalmodiahanoskoie. In: Landolt E. ed. Die Untersuchungsmethoden. Springer Vienna, Vienna 1920: 392–424.
  5. Lindahl C. Über Durchleuchtungsmethoden zum Nachweis von Choroidealtumoren. Klin Mbl Augenheilk. 1922; 1922: 11–29.
  6. Terasaki H, Miyake Y, Awaya S, et al. Identification of anterior uveal tumor border by transscleral transillumination and an ophthalmic endoscope. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997; 123(1): 138–140.
  7. Kjersem B, Krohn J, Krohn J, et al. A modified digital slit lamp camera system for transillumination photography of intraocular tumours. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012; 96(4): 475–477.
  8. HARRIS D, BROCKHURST RJ. Localization of intraocular foreign bodies by transilumination, and by indirect ophthalmoscopy with scleral indentation. Can Med Assoc J. 1962; 87: 565–567.
  9. Neubauer H. Intraocular foreign bodies. Bright light operative localization. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1968; 8(1): 205–209.
  10. Wood EH. Study of transillumination of the eye. Arch Ophthalmol. 1939; 22(4): 653–666.
  11. Berens C. Transilluminators and illuminated retractors for retinal detachment and surgery. J Am Med Assoc. 1955; 159(16): 1532.
  12. Osmond AH. New electrode transilluminator. Br J Ophthalmol. 1954; 38(12): 757–762.
  13. Veckeneer M, Wong D. Visualising vitreous through modified trans-scleral illumination by maximising the Tyndall effect. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009; 93(2): 268–270.
  14. Koch FH, Scholtz S, Koss M, et al. External illumination options for vitreoretinal service provided in the operating room, an ambulatory surgery center or in the office. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011; 52: 544.
  15. Bamonte G, van den Biesen PR. Vitreous base visualisation through trans-scleral illumination with a standard 25-gauge light probe. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014; 98(2): 281–283.
  16. Cree, Inc. Cree® XLamp® XM-L® Color LEDs: Data Sheet. 2019. https://www.cree.com/led-components/media/documents/XLampXML_Color.pdf. (April 2021).
  17. Fischer H. Three Internal Chambers of the Eye. 2013. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/archive/8/8a/20130204203139!Three_Internal_chambers_of_the_Eye.png?uselang=de (January 2021.).
  18. DIN EN ISO 15004-2:2007-06, Ophthalmische Instrumente — Grundlegende Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren. Teil_2: Schutz gegen Gefährdung durch Licht (ISO_15004-2:2007); Deutsche Fassung EN_ISO_15004-2:2007.
  19. Koelbl PS, Klante P, Koch F, et al. Location and pressure dependent transmission of human and porcine sclera: an anterior to posterior examination. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2017; 255(11): 2185–2198.
  20. Schirmer KE. Transillumination and Visualization of the Anterior Fundus. Archives of Ophthalmology. 1964; 71(4): 475–480.
  21. Hessling M, Koelbl PS, Lingenfelder C, Koch F. Miniature LED endoilluminators for vitreoretinal surgery. In: Lilge LD, Sroka R. ed. European Conferences on Biomedical Optics; Sunday 21 June 2015. SPIE, Munich : 95421A.
  22. Lingenfelder C, Koch F, Koelbl P, et al. Transscleral LED illumination pen. Biomed Eng Lett. 2017; 7(4): 311–315.
  23. Koelbl PS, Sieber N, Lingenfelder C, et al. Pressure dependent direct transtissue transmission of eyewall, sclera and vitreous body in the range of 350-1050nm. Z Med Phys. 2020; 30(3): 201–210.
  24. Sjöback R, Nygren J, Kubista M. Absorption and fluorescence properties of fluorescein. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 1995; 51(6): L7–L21.
  25. Tsang SH, Sharma T. Fluorescein Angiography. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018; 1085: 7–10.