Vol 5 (2020): Continuous Publishing
Original paper
Published online: 2020-07-09

open access

Page views 635
Article views/downloads 531
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

The frequency of refractive errors required to be corrected in childhood among Turkish children

Mahmut Atum1, Burçin Çakır1, Erdinç Bozkurt2, Erkan Çelik1, Gürsoy Alagöz1
Ophthalmol J 2020;5:33-37.


Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution of refractive errors needed to be correct in childhood.

Material and methods: Children applied and received glasses prescriptions were recruited. Age, gender, spherical, cylindrical error, and spherical equivalent (SE) were noted. The refractive errors were classified as myopic, hyperopic and cylindrical errors according to the SE and prescriptions. Cylindrical errors were subdivided into myopic, hyperopic. Children were classified into 4 groups. Group 1, 2, 3 and 4 composed of children whose ages were between 0–5, 6–10, 11–15 and 16–18 years, respectively.

Results: There were 846 children in group 1, 3931 in group 2, 5948 in group 3, 3896 in group 4, and a total of 14621 children. The rates of myopia and hyperopia were 72.4% and 27.6%. Myopic and hyperopic astigmatism were found in 29.1% and 11.3% of children. Myopia, myopic astigmatism increased with age (p < 0.05). The hyperopia rate decreased with decreasing age (p < 0.05). The frequency of myopia, myopic astigmatism was higher in both male and female children (p < 0.05). The rate of myopia was higher in females (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of cylindrical value between genders. The statistically significant difference was found in terms of mean SE among all groups and a negative correlation was present between age and mean SE. A lower negative correlation was stated between age and cylindrical value.

Conclusion: Corrected myopic and myopic astigmatism errors were higher than hyperopic refractive errors. The prevalence of myopia increased by age and was higher in females. The need for glasses was highest in children whose age range was between 11 and 15 years.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. Resnikoff S, Pascolini D, Mariotti SP, et al. Global magnitude of visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive errors in 2004. Bull World Health Organ. 2008; 86(1): 63–70.
  2. Tongue AC. Refractive errors in children. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1987; 34(6): 1425–1437.
  3. Maul E, Barroso S, Munoz SR, et al. Refractive Error Study in Children: results from La Florida, Chile. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000; 129(4): 445–454.
  4. Mehari ZA, Yimer AW. Prevalence of refractive errors among schoolchildren in rural central Ethiopia. Clin Exp Optom. 2013; 96(1): 65–69.
  5. Gomez-Salazar F, Campos-Romero A, Gomez-Campaña H, et al. Refractive errors among children, adolescents and adults attending eye clinics in Mexico. Int J Ophthalmol. 2017; 10(5): 796–802.
  6. Rajavi Z, Sabbaghi H, Baghini AS, et al. Prevalence of Amblyopia and Refractive Errors Among Primary School Children. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2015; 10(4): 408–416.
  7. Jobke S, Kasten E, Vorwerk C. The prevalence rates of refractive errors among children, adolescents, and adults in Germany. Clin Ophthalmol. 2008; 2(3): 601–607.
  8. Holden BA, Fricke TR, Wilson DA, et al. Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050. Ophthalmology. 2016; 123(5): 1036–1042.
  9. Caca I, Cingu AK, Sahin A, et al. Amblyopia and refractive errors among school-aged children with low socioeconomic status in southeastern Turkey. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2013; 50(1): 37–43.
  10. Robaei D, Kifley A, Rose KA, et al. Refractive error and patterns of spectacle use in 12-year-old Australian children. Ophthalmology. 2006; 113(9): 1567–1573.
  11. Gaete MI, Lira RP, Lynch de Moraes LF, et al. [Association between the need for optical correction prescription and other ocular conditions in school children]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2007; 70(6): 949–952.
  12. Robaei D, Rose K, Kifley A, et al. Patterns of spectacle use in young Australian school children: findings from a population-based study. J AAPOS. 2005; 9(6): 579–583.
  13. Huang YoP, Singh A, Lai LiJu. The Prevalence and Severity of Myopia among Suburban Schoolchildren in Taiwan. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2018; 47(7): 253–259.
  14. Gursoy H, Basmak H, Yaz Y, et al. Vision screening in children entering school: Eskisehir, Turkey. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2013; 20(4): 232–238.
  15. Chen J, Chen Z, Lin S, et al. Correlation analysis for school-age children's height and refractive errors. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2018; 27(8): 1125–1130.
  16. Goldschmidt E. [On the etiology of myopia. An epidemiological study]. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1968: Suppl 98.
  17. Mohammed Alemam A, Aldebasi MH, Rehmatullah A, et al. Prevalence of Myopia among Children Attending Pediatrics Ophthalmology Clinic at Ohud Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia. J Ophthalmol. 2018; 2018: 3708409.
  18. Lin LL, Shih YF, Tsai CB, et al. Epidemiologic study of ocular refraction among schoolchildren in Taiwan in 1995. Optom Vis Sci. 1999; 76(5): 275–281.