open access

Vol 5 (2020): Continuous Publishing
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Published online: 2020-02-06
Get Citation

Risk factors associated with development of senile cataract

Pragati Garg, Ritika Mullick, Bharti Nigam, Priyanka Raj
DOI: 10.5603/OJ.2020.0005
·
Ophthalmol J 2020;5:17-24.

open access

Vol 5 (2020): Continuous Publishing
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Published online: 2020-02-06

Abstract

Background: Cataract is the most common cause of reversible blindness worldwide, which has been associated with various causative risk factors. Hence, we aim to study the factors that might play a role in cataractogenesis.

Material and methods: A total of 240 eyes of 240 subjects were included for the study, which consisted of 120 cases with age-related cataract and 120 age-matched controls, and in them various factors like blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), smoking, sun exposure, and serum cholesterol were studied.

Results: A statistically significant difference between the two groups was found with respect to smoking profile (p = 0.007), sun exposure (p = 0.001), and serum cholesterol (p < 0.001). Subjects who were smokers, had a longer exposure to sun, and had higher serum cholesterol level were found to be positively associated with development of cataract. No significant association between BMI (p = 0.384) and blood pressure (p > 0.05) was observed.

Conclusion: Higher cholesterol levels, increased sun exposure, and smoking habit play a role in the development of senile cataract, and these are modifiable risk factors. Hence, control of these might help in delaying formation and progression of cataract.

Abstract

Background: Cataract is the most common cause of reversible blindness worldwide, which has been associated with various causative risk factors. Hence, we aim to study the factors that might play a role in cataractogenesis.

Material and methods: A total of 240 eyes of 240 subjects were included for the study, which consisted of 120 cases with age-related cataract and 120 age-matched controls, and in them various factors like blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), smoking, sun exposure, and serum cholesterol were studied.

Results: A statistically significant difference between the two groups was found with respect to smoking profile (p = 0.007), sun exposure (p = 0.001), and serum cholesterol (p < 0.001). Subjects who were smokers, had a longer exposure to sun, and had higher serum cholesterol level were found to be positively associated with development of cataract. No significant association between BMI (p = 0.384) and blood pressure (p > 0.05) was observed.

Conclusion: Higher cholesterol levels, increased sun exposure, and smoking habit play a role in the development of senile cataract, and these are modifiable risk factors. Hence, control of these might help in delaying formation and progression of cataract.

Get Citation

Keywords

cataract; serum cholesterol; blood pressure; risk factor; smoking

About this article
Title

Risk factors associated with development of senile cataract

Journal

Ophthalmology Journal

Issue

Vol 5 (2020): Continuous Publishing

Pages

17-24

Published online

2020-02-06

DOI

10.5603/OJ.2020.0005

Bibliographic record

Ophthalmol J 2020;5:17-24.

Keywords

cataract
serum cholesterol
blood pressure
risk factor
smoking

Authors

Pragati Garg
Ritika Mullick
Bharti Nigam
Priyanka Raj

References (33)
  1. World Health Organization. Blindness and visual impairment. WHO Fact Sheet dated 11 October, 2017. http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/blindness-and-visual-impairment (1st May, 2018).
  2. Thulasiraj RD, Nirmalan PK, Ramakrishnan R, et al. Blindness and vision impairment in a rural south Indian population: the Aravind Comprehensive Eye Survey. Ophthalmology. 2003; 110(8): 1491–1498.
  3. Thulasiraj RD, Rahamathulla R, Saraswati A, et al. The Sivaganga eye survey: I. Blindness and cataract surgery. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2002; 9(5): 299–312.
  4. Nirmalan PK, Thulasiraj RD, Maneksha V, et al. A population based eye survey of older adults in Tirunelveli district of south India: blindness, cataract surgery, and visual outcomes. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002; 86(5): 505–512.
  5. West SK, Valmadrid CT, West SK, et al. Epidemiology of risk factors for age-related cataract. Surv Ophthalmol. 1995; 39(4): 323–334.
  6. Younan C, Mitchell P, Cumming RG, et al. Hormone replacement therapy, reproductive factors, and the incidence of cataract and cataract surgery: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002; 155(11): 997–1006.
  7. Mukesh BN, Le A, Dimitrov PN, et al. Development of cataract and associated risk factors: the Visual Impairment Project. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006; 124(1): 79–85.
  8. Wu SY, Leske MC. Antioxidants and cataract formation: a summary review. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2000; 40(4): 71–81.
  9. Leske MC, Chylack LT, Wu SY, et al. The Lens Opacities Case-Control Study. Risk factors for cataract. Arch Ophthalmol. 1991; 109(2): 244–251.
  10. Hiller R, Sperduto RD, Reed GF, et al. Serum lipids and age-related lens opacities: a longitudinal investigation: the Framingham Studies. Ophthalmology. 2003; 110(3): 578–583.
  11. Jahn CE, Janke M, Winowski H, et al. Identification of metabolic risk factors for posterior subcapsular cataract. Ophthalmic Res. 1986; 18(2): 112–116.
  12. Familial aggregation of lens opacities: the Framingham Eye Study and the Framingham Offspring Eye Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1994; 140(6): 555–564.
  13. Heiba IM, Elston RC, Klein BE, et al. Evidence for a major gene for cortical cataract. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995; 36(1): 227–235.
  14. Young RW. The family of sunlight-related eye diseases. Optom Vis Sci. 1994; 71(2): 125–144.
  15. Rao V, Kiran R. Evaluation of correlation between oxidative stress and abnormal lipid profile in coronary artery disease. J Cardiovasc Dis Res. 2011; 2(1): 57–60.
  16. Nourmohammadi I, Modarress M, Khanaki K, et al. Association of serum alpha-tocopherol, retinol and ascorbic acid with the risk of cataract development. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008; 52(4): 296–298.
  17. Abbaszadeh M, Aidenloo NS, Motarjemizadeh Q, et al. Lack of association between plasma levels of vitamin C and nuclear cataract. Bull Env Pharmacol Life Sci. 2016; 6(1): 1–5.
  18. Karppi J, Laukkanen JA, Kurl S. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin and the risk of age-related nuclear cataract among the elderly Finnish population. Br J Nutr. 2012; 108(1): 148–154.
  19. Ye J, Lou LX, He JJ, et al. Smoking and risk of age-related cataract: a meta-analysis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012; 53(7): 3885–3895.
  20. Isik B, Ceylan A, Isik R. Oxidative stress in smokers and non-smokers. Inhal Toxicol. 2007; 19(9): 767–769.
  21. Donohue JF. Ageing, smoking and oxidative stress. Thorax. 2006; 61(6): 461–462.
  22. Gepner AD, Piper ME, Johnson HM, et al. Effects of smoking and smoking cessation on lipids and lipoproteins: outcomes from a randomized clinical trial. Am Heart J. 2011; 161(1): 145–151.
  23. Sinha AK, Misra GC, Patel DK. Effect of cigarette smoking on lipid profile in the young. J Assoc Physicians India. 1995; 43(3): 185–188.
  24. Young RW. The family of sunlight-related eye diseases. Optom Vis Sci. 1994; 71(2): 125–144.
  25. Ayala MN, Michael R, Söderberg PG. Influence of exposure time for UV radiation-induced cataract. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000; 41(11): 3539–3543.
  26. Al-Talqani HM, Taher AA, Jabouri BB. Dyslipidemia and cataract in adult Iraqi patients . EC Ophthalmol. 2017; 5(5): 162–171.
  27. Cenedella R. Cholesterol and cataracts. Surv Ophthalmol. 1996; 40(4): 320–337.
  28. Wentworth P, Nieva J, Takeuchi C, et al. Evidence for ozone formation in human atherosclerotic arteries. Science. 2003; 302(5647): 1053–1056.
  29. Dreyfus MA, Tolocka MP, Dodds SM, et al. Cholesterol ozonolysis: kinetics, mechanism, and oligomer products. J Phys Chem A. 2005; 109(28): 6242–6248.
  30. Hiller R, Sperduto RD, Reed GF, et al. Serum lipids and age-related lens opacities: a longitudinal investigation: the Framingham Studies. Ophthalmology. 2003; 110(3): 578–583.
  31. Heydari B, Kazemi T, Zarban A, et al. Correlation of cataract with serum lipids, glucose and antioxidant activities: a case-control study. West Indian Med J. 2012; 61(3): 230–234.
  32. Park YH, Shin JAh, Han K, et al. Gender difference in the association of metabolic syndrome and its components with age-related cataract: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1): e85068.
  33. Li S, Li D, Zhang Y, et al. Association between serum lipids concentration and patients with age-related cataract in China: a cross-sectional, case-control study. BMJ Open. 2018; 8(4): e021496.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

VM Media sp. z o.o. VM Group sp.k., Grupa Via Medica, 73 Świętokrzyska St., 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail: viamedica@viamedica.pl