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Published online: 2024-05-09

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Choroid plexus imaging in multiple sclerosis management — a systematic review

Justyna Wołos1, Olga Grodzka12, Jan Kochanowski1, Izabela Domitrz1

Abstract

Introduction. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system (CNS) disease associated with inflammation, demyelination, and neurodegeneration. It affects more than 2 million people globally, and usually occurs in young adults, three-quarters of whom are women. Importantly, accurate diagnosis and treatment are essential, as this disease can lead to the rapid development of disability. The choroid plexus (CP) is a structure widely known as the main cerebrospinal fluid source. However, it is also involved in immune cell trafficking to the cerebrospinal fluid, which is increased in different neurological disorders, particularly those associated with neuroinflammation. As MS is generally thought to be caused by an autoimmune process, it has been suggested that the choroid plexus may play a significant role in its pathogenesis, manifesting via changes in imaging characteristics.

Material and methods. Although research regarding this topic has been very limited, the results of the available studies appear promising. To further investigate this subject, we performed a systematic literature review according to the PRISMA 2020 guidelines. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant articles, and after thorough analysis, 16 studies were included in our review.

Results. CP volume was significantly increased in MS patients compared to healthy individuals. Furthermore, some studies found that CP enlargement occurs even before a definite diagnosis. Moreover, a few articles reported correlations between CP volume and brain atrophy, or even disease severity.

Conclusions. Our findings show that CP imaging has the potential to become a novel and valuable tool in multiple sclerosis management.

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