Vol 58, No 3 (2024)
Review Article
Published online: 2024-06-12

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Deep brain stimulation of anterior nucleus and centromedian nucleus of thalamus in treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy

Michał Sobstyl1, Magdalena Konopko2, Aleksandra Wierzbicka3, Marek Prokopienko1, Tadeusz Pietras4, Kasper Sipowicz5
Pubmed: 38864766
Neurol Neurochir Pol 2024;58(3):256-273.

Abstract

Introduction. Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) remains poorly-controlled in c.33% of patients, and up to 50% of patients suffering from DRE are deemed not to be suitable candidates for resective surgery. For these patients, deep brain stimulation (DBS) may constitute the last resort in the treatment of DRE.

State of the art. We undertook a systematic review of the current literature on DBS efficacy and the safety of two thalamic nuclei–anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) and the centromedian nucleus of the thalamus in the management of patients with DRE. A search using two electronic databases, the Medical Literature, Analysis, and Retrieval System on-line (MEDLINE) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CEN-TRAL) was conducted.

Clinical implications. We found 30 articles related to ANT DBS and 13 articles related to CMN DBS which were further analysed. Based on the clinical research articles, we found a mean seizure frequency reduction for both thalamic nuclei. For ANT DBS, the mean seizure frequency reduction ranged from 48% to 75%, and for CMN DBS from 46.7% to 91%. The responder rate (defined as at least 50% reduction in seizure frequency) was reported to be 53.2-75% for patients after ANT DBS and 50-90% for patients after CMN DBS.

Future directions. ANT and CMN DBS appear to be safe and efficacious treatments, particularly in patients with refractory partial seizures and primary generalised seizures. ANT DBS reduces most effectively seizures originating in the temporal and frontal lobes. CMN DBS reduces mostly primary generalised tonic-clonic and atypical absences and atonic seizures. Seizures related to Lennox-Gastaut syndrome respond very favourably to CMN DBS.

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