Vol 57, No 6 (2023)
Research Paper
Published online: 2023-11-13

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Default mode function in patients with generalised epilepsy syndromes: from generalised to focal findings

Catalina Elena Bistriceanu12, Iulian Stoleriu3, Dan Iulian Cuciureanu14
Pubmed: 37955596
Neurol Neurochir Pol 2023;57(6):477-483.

Abstract

Introduction. Many recent studies have suggested that generalised epilepsy is associated with cortical epileptogenic focus, and therefore distinguishing between focal and generalised often becomes difficult. Aim of study. We aimed to detect differences between default mode function in patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy who have discharges on EEG, and healthy persons.

Material and methods. This was a case-control study; we performed EEG analysis with LORETA in 17 patients with a type of generalised epilepsy and a control group represented by 17 healthy age-matched persons. We performed statistical non- -parametric tests for current density electrical distribution for our two groups (‘t-statistic on Log transformed data’) and we defined regions of interest (ROIs) from the default mode network. In the second part, we compared the average activation for each ROI for each timeframe in the epoch for the group with epilepsy, and for controls (we performed a Wilcoxon rank-sum test for two means).

Results. In the first part, we obtained that in the medial frontal gyrus (BA 9) delta oscillations significantly differed in patients with epilepsy who had electrical discharges on EEG in resting state conditions compared to healthy controls (medial frontal gyrus in this group had a greater number of synchronously oscillating neurons than did the controls). In the second part, we ran statistics on our localised activity from the default mode network (defined ROIs) and we obtained statistically significant differences in the left medial frontal gyrus (the values were higher for the group with epilepsy, p-value = 0.0066).

Conclusions and clinical implications. It may be possible to move from a ‘generalised theory’ about epilepsy to a ‘focused theory’ by understanding how various areas of interest are activated within default mode networks. Insights into the pathophysiology of generalised epilepsy may lead to new treatment options.

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