open access

Vol 51, No 3 (2017)
Original research articles
Submitted: 2016-11-26
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Reconstruction of large cranial defects with poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) using a rapid prototyping model and a new technique for intraoperative implant modeling

Claudia Unterhofer, Christoph Wipplinger, Michael Verius, Wolfgang Recheis, Claudius Thomé, Martin Ortler
DOI: 10.1016/j.pjnns.2017.02.007
·
Neurol Neurochir Pol 2017;51(3):214-220.

open access

Vol 51, No 3 (2017)
Original research articles
Submitted: 2016-11-26

Abstract

Background

Reconstruction of large cranial defects after craniectomy can be accomplished by free-hand poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) or industrially manufactured implants. The free-hand technique often does not achieve satisfactory cosmetic results but is inexpensive. In an attempt to combine the accuracy of specifically manufactured implants with low cost of PMMA.

Methods

Forty-six consecutive patients with large skull defects after trauma or infection were retrospectively analyzed. The defects were reconstructed using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. The computer file was imported into a rapid prototyping (RP) machine to produce an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene model (ABS) of the patient's bony head. The gas-sterilized model was used as a template for the intraoperative modeling of the PMMA cranioplasty. Thus, not the PMMA implant was generated by CAD/CAM technique but the model of the patients head to easily form a well-fitting implant. Cosmetic outcome was rated on a six-tiered scale by the patients after a minimum follow-up of three months.

Results

The mean size of the defect was 74.36cm2. The implants fitted well in all patients. Seven patients had a postoperative complication and underwent reoperation. Mean follow-up period was 41 months (range 2–91 months). Results were excellent in 42, good in three and not satisfactory in one patient. Costs per implant were approximately 550 Euros.

Conclusion

PMMA implants fabricated in-house by direct molding using a bio-model of the patients bony head are easily produced, fit properly and are inexpensive compared to cranial implants fabricated with other RP or milling techniques.

Abstract

Background

Reconstruction of large cranial defects after craniectomy can be accomplished by free-hand poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) or industrially manufactured implants. The free-hand technique often does not achieve satisfactory cosmetic results but is inexpensive. In an attempt to combine the accuracy of specifically manufactured implants with low cost of PMMA.

Methods

Forty-six consecutive patients with large skull defects after trauma or infection were retrospectively analyzed. The defects were reconstructed using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. The computer file was imported into a rapid prototyping (RP) machine to produce an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene model (ABS) of the patient's bony head. The gas-sterilized model was used as a template for the intraoperative modeling of the PMMA cranioplasty. Thus, not the PMMA implant was generated by CAD/CAM technique but the model of the patients head to easily form a well-fitting implant. Cosmetic outcome was rated on a six-tiered scale by the patients after a minimum follow-up of three months.

Results

The mean size of the defect was 74.36cm2. The implants fitted well in all patients. Seven patients had a postoperative complication and underwent reoperation. Mean follow-up period was 41 months (range 2–91 months). Results were excellent in 42, good in three and not satisfactory in one patient. Costs per implant were approximately 550 Euros.

Conclusion

PMMA implants fabricated in-house by direct molding using a bio-model of the patients bony head are easily produced, fit properly and are inexpensive compared to cranial implants fabricated with other RP or milling techniques.

Get Citation

Keywords

Cranioplasty, Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA), Rapid prototyping, Stereolithography

About this article
Title

Reconstruction of large cranial defects with poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) using a rapid prototyping model and a new technique for intraoperative implant modeling

Journal

Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska

Issue

Vol 51, No 3 (2017)

Pages

214-220

DOI

10.1016/j.pjnns.2017.02.007

Bibliographic record

Neurol Neurochir Pol 2017;51(3):214-220.

Keywords

Cranioplasty
Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA)
Rapid prototyping
Stereolithography

Authors

Claudia Unterhofer
Christoph Wipplinger
Michael Verius
Wolfgang Recheis
Claudius Thomé
Martin Ortler

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