Vol 49, No 6 (2015)

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Predictors of intracranial cerebral artery stenosis in patients before cardiac surgery and its impact on perioperative and long-term stroke risk

Piotr Luchowski1, Joanna Wojczal1, Kinga Buraczynska1, Michal Kozlowicz2, Janusz Stazka2, Konrad Rejdak1
DOI: 10.1016/j.pjnns.2015.09.006
Neurol Neurochir Pol 2015;49(6):395-400.

Abstract

Background

The aim of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence of stenosis within intracranial and extracranial arteries in patients before coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG), to evaluate the influence of intracranial artery stenosis on neurological outcome and to identify preoperative risk factors for these patients.

Methods

One hundred and seventy-five patients (71% males, mean age=66.1) scheduled for CABG were enrolled for extracranial Doppler duplex sonography, transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCS) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) examination.

Results

Twenty-six patients (14.7%) had extracranial stenosis or occlusion and 13 patients (7.3%) intracranial vascular disease. Six patients (3.5%) had both extra- and intracranial artery disease. The presence of peripheral artery disease and diabetes mellitus was a strong risk factor for extracranial artery stenosis but not for intracranial artery stenosis, which occurred independently also of typical atherosclerotic risk factors like age >70, male sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, smoking habit, obesity (BMI>30) and waist to hip ratio >1. Functional neurological outcome of the patients with intracranial arterial disease evaluated 7 days after CABG was the same as the patients without extra- and intracranial stenosis. However, 12-months neurological follow-up revealed significantly more ischemic strokes in patients with intracranial artery stenosis compared to patients without intracranial stenosis (p=0.015).

Conclusion

The occurrence of intracranial artery stenosis in CABG patients cannot be predicted by well-known atherosclerotic risk factors and seems not to be associated with perioperative stroke.

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Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska