Vol 48, No 1 (2014)
Review Article

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Phantom phenomena and body scheme after limb amputation: A literature review

Aneta Pirowska1, Tomasz Wloch23, Roman Nowobilski4, Maciej Plaszewski5, Abdellah Hocini1, Doménico Ménager1
DOI: 10.1016/j.pjnns.2013.03.002
Neurol Neurochir Pol 2014;48(1):52-59.


Phantom phenomena are subject of various, often inconsistent, descriptions, and new concepts and treatment approaches emerge. The aim of the study is to describe contemporary terminology and developments in the field, and to share personal experience.

A review of English and French language literature, published prior to 27th February, 2012, extracted from PubMed/MEDLINE, Google.fr, GoogleScholar databases, and by hand searching of selected full text papers and textbooks with correspondence to personal clinical experience was performed.

The terminology and classification of phantom phenomena sensations, relations between intensity and character of phantom pain to the etiology and level of amputations, as well as the influence of presence and intensity of pre-operative limb pain and post-operative stump pain on phantom phenomena are described. The benefits of mirror therapy and early introduction of prosthesis and applying functional prosthesis are also presented, with a glance at other conservative and surgical treatment approaches.

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Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska