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Vol 47, No 1 (2013)

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Transnasal endoscopic approaches to the cranial base

Tomasz Łysoń1, Andrzej Sieśkiewicz2, Robert Rutkowski1, Jan Kochanowicz1, Grzegorz Turek1, Marek Rogowski2, Zenon Mariak1
DOI: 10.5114/ninp.2012.31474
Neurol Neurochir Pol 2013;47(1):63-73.


Recent advances in surgical endoscopy have made it possible to reach nearly the whole cranial base through a transnasal approach. These ‘expanded approaches’ lead to the frontal sinuses, the cribriform plate and planum sphenoidale, the suprasellar space, the clivus, odontoid and atlas. By pointing the endoscope laterally, the surgeon can explore structures in the coronal plane such as the cavernous sinuses, the pyramid and Meckel cave, the sphenopalatine and subtemporal fossae, and even the middle fossa and the orbit. The authors of this contribution use most of these approaches in their endoscopic skull base surgery. The purpose of this contribution is to review the hitherto established endoscopic approaches to the skull base and to illustrate them with photographs obtained during self-performed procedures and/or cadaver studies.

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Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska