Vol 45, No 5 (2011)

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The role of ecto-purines in inflammation leading to demyelination – new means for therapies against multiple sclerosis

Marek Cieślak1, Michał Komoszyński2
DOI: 10.1016/S0028-3843(14)60318-2
Neurol Neurochir Pol 2011;45(5):489-499.

Abstract

Nucleotides released from activated and/or injured cells activate P2 receptors. Extracellular nucleotides serve as danger signals or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that trigger various immune responses. Indeed, P2 receptors are highly expressed in the astrocytes, microglia and other immune cells such as T and B lymphocytes that migrate to the central nervous system. The activation of P2 receptors triggers the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines as well as immune cell migration and proliferation that contribute to demyelination and axonal damage. The activation of P2 receptors is controlled by the ectonucleotidases which hydrolyze extracellular nucleotides. Ecto-NTPDases and ecto-5′-nucleotidase are expressed in the astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, endothelial cells and activated T cells. The hydrolysis of extracellular ATP and ADP by enzymes results in the generation of extracellular adenosine. This nucleoside interacts with P1 receptors and activates anti-inflammatory and immuno-suppressive responses in the cells involved in MS.

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Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska