open access

Vol 4, No 3 (2019)
REVIEW ARTICLES
Published online: 2019-09-20
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Microbubble based sonoporation — from the basics into clinical implications

Piotr Wawryka, Aleksander Kiełbik, Gracjan Iwanek
DOI: 10.5603/MRJ.a2019.0032
·
Medical Research Journal 2019;4(3):178-183.

open access

Vol 4, No 3 (2019)
REVIEW ARTICLES
Published online: 2019-09-20

Abstract

Sonoporation is a rapidly developing novel technique serving for drug delivery and non-viral gene therapy. It is based on the interaction between microbubbles located in the surrounding of a cell and its membrane. The interaction is obtained by excitation of microbubbles with ultrasounds. This leads to reversible cell membrane poration. Depending on the intensity of ultrasounds, structure of microbubbles used in an experiment and different environmental factors, microbubbles can interact in two manners. First, in lower ultrasound intensities, stable cavitation – regular microbubbles oscillations due to changes in the environment pressure. Microbubbles have to be very close to a cell membrane, therefore, they are usually targeted to an antigen located on the cell membrane by antibodies. Consequently, microbubbles push and pull on the cell membrane and create microstreaming around it causing its disruption. Second, inertial cavitation, where in contrary to the previous one, oscillations cause rapid collapse of microbubbles, which creates shock waves and microjets for the same purpose. No matter in which manner prorated, cells tend to reseal their disrupted cell membrane. Ca2+ ions play a crucial role in the process as well as endo exocytosis. Sonoporation has proved to be an effective modality against different diseases, including variety of cancer types in of both laboratory and clinical studies.

Abstract

Sonoporation is a rapidly developing novel technique serving for drug delivery and non-viral gene therapy. It is based on the interaction between microbubbles located in the surrounding of a cell and its membrane. The interaction is obtained by excitation of microbubbles with ultrasounds. This leads to reversible cell membrane poration. Depending on the intensity of ultrasounds, structure of microbubbles used in an experiment and different environmental factors, microbubbles can interact in two manners. First, in lower ultrasound intensities, stable cavitation – regular microbubbles oscillations due to changes in the environment pressure. Microbubbles have to be very close to a cell membrane, therefore, they are usually targeted to an antigen located on the cell membrane by antibodies. Consequently, microbubbles push and pull on the cell membrane and create microstreaming around it causing its disruption. Second, inertial cavitation, where in contrary to the previous one, oscillations cause rapid collapse of microbubbles, which creates shock waves and microjets for the same purpose. No matter in which manner prorated, cells tend to reseal their disrupted cell membrane. Ca2+ ions play a crucial role in the process as well as endo exocytosis. Sonoporation has proved to be an effective modality against different diseases, including variety of cancer types in of both laboratory and clinical studies.

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Keywords

sonoporation, microbubble, nanobubbles, inertial cavitation, gene therapy

About this article
Title

Microbubble based sonoporation — from the basics into clinical implications

Journal

Medical Research Journal

Issue

Vol 4, No 3 (2019)

Pages

178-183

Published online

2019-09-20

DOI

10.5603/MRJ.a2019.0032

Bibliographic record

Medical Research Journal 2019;4(3):178-183.

Keywords

sonoporation
microbubble
nanobubbles
inertial cavitation
gene therapy

Authors

Piotr Wawryka
Aleksander Kiełbik
Gracjan Iwanek

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