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Vol 17, No 1 (2024)
Research paper
Published online: 2024-03-29

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Interference of anti-M antibody with ABO blood grouping — own experience

Barbara Sowa1, Michał Kunysz1
Journal of Transfusion Medicine 2024;17(1):1-6.


Background: Anti-M antibody alloantibody is a fairly common, naturally occurring cold-type
antibody.e mostly of the IgM class but may also occur as IgG or IgM with IgG component. It is
considered clinically insignificant as it reacts at temperatures below 37°C. IgM class anti-M
antibody may be responsible for interference with the standard ABO blood grouping in patients.

Material and methods: In this study we focus on the experience of the Reference Laboratory
of the Regional Blood Transfusion Center Katowice in detection, identification as well as
interference of anti-M alloantibody with ABO grouping. Between January 1st 2022 and June
30th, 2022, the Reference Laboratory performed 1800 consulting and blood grouping tests.
The study test pool was divided into 2 groups by age: 4 months–18 years and above 18 years of
age. 137 cases of anti-M antibodyalloantibody from the MNS blood group system were detected
and identified. In cases of ABO blood grouping-problems, additional procedures were applied
such as blood grouping with conventional test tube technique (CTT) at 37°C, use of standard
M negative O, A1, B red blood cells and treatment of sera with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME)
agglutanation test.

Results: Anti-M antibody interference with ABO blood grouping was more common for
individuals under 18 years of age than in the older patients. Anti-M antibody occured approximately
twice as frequently in the IgM class than in the IgG/IgG + IgM class, regardless of
age/study group.

Conclusions: Anti-M antibody was causing unexpected positive reactions of the study serum
with standard red blood cells and the reason of complications in interpretation of results and
delay in their the issue/release.

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Journal of Transfusion Medicine