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Vol 17, No 1 (2024)
Research paper
Published online: 2024-03-29

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Problems with ABO blood group typing associated with the presence of anti-M alloantibodies of the MNS system - own experience

Barbara Sowa1, Michał Kunysz1
Journal of Transfusion Medicine 2024;17(1):7-12.

Abstract

Anti-M alloantibodies are fairly common, naturally occurring cold-type antibodies. They are typically in the IgM class, but can also occur as IgG or IgM antibodies with an IgG component. They are usually not active at 37°C and therefore are considered clinically insignificant. IgM class anti-M antibodies can cause deviations from the classic ABO blood group typing scheme in patients samples. This study analyzes the experience of the Pracownia Konsultacyjna of the Regionalne Centrum Krwiodawstwa i Krwiolecznictwa in Katowice related to the detection and identification of anti-M alloantibodies and blood group typing issues. From January 1, 2022 to June 30, 2022, 1800 antibody screening or indentification and blood group tests were performed. The analyzed pool of studies was divided into two age groups: from 4 months to 18 years and over 18 years old. In 137 cases, anti-M alloantibodies from the MNS system were detected and identified. In cases where there were problems with blood group typing, additional procedures were used, such as: blood group determination using tube technique at 37°C, use of standard red blood cells A1 and B without M antigen, and treatment of the tested serum with 2-ME reagent. Anti-M antibodies pose a greater problem in blood group typing in individuals under 18 years old than in older patients. They occur approximately 2 times more frequently in the IgM class than in the IgG/IgG+IgM class, regardless of the age of the study group. They cause unexpected positive reactions of the tested serum with standard red blood cells, making it difficult to interpret the results obtained and delaying the release of the blood group result.

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Journal of Transfusion Medicine