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Vol 10, No 4 (2017)
Review paper
Published online: 2018-01-17
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Ebola virus — a potential challenge for blood donation, blood product therapy and public health

Katarzyna Tkaczuk, Ryszard Pogłód, Piotr Grabarczyk
Journal of Transfusion Medicine 2017;10(4):149-165.

open access

Vol 10, No 4 (2017)
REVIEWS
Published online: 2018-01-17

Abstract

Ebola virus (EBOV) is a known infectious agent of Ebola virus disease(EVD) in the Central African countries for four decades. In the years 2014-2016, the EBOV caused tremendous anxiety as it spread to new territories — West African countries, causing the largest ever EVD epidemic. Between December 2013 and March 2016, more than 28,000 confirmed, probable and possible EVD cases were reported in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, including over 11,000 deaths. Several cases of EBOV infection have also occurred in the United States of America and in Europe — those who took care of infected people in Africa also became infected. The virus poses a serious threat to public health in countries where there is an outbreak of disease. During the epidemic in West Africa, the risk of the EBOV transmission through substances of human origin (SoHO) increased. This also implies an increased risk of such situations outside the African continent. It can be reduced by using appropriate procedures such as donor qualifications and laboratory biosafety. The work highlighted EBOV transmission methods, clinical course of infection, diagnosis and treatment, especially with blood components, epidemiological situation and ways of preventing infection and control of epidemic. The assessment of the risk of transmission of the Ebola virus by SoHO and the probability of using EBOV as a biological weapon are discussed in detail. There are also recommendations on the biosafety of medical diagnostic laboratories.

Abstract

Ebola virus (EBOV) is a known infectious agent of Ebola virus disease(EVD) in the Central African countries for four decades. In the years 2014-2016, the EBOV caused tremendous anxiety as it spread to new territories — West African countries, causing the largest ever EVD epidemic. Between December 2013 and March 2016, more than 28,000 confirmed, probable and possible EVD cases were reported in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, including over 11,000 deaths. Several cases of EBOV infection have also occurred in the United States of America and in Europe — those who took care of infected people in Africa also became infected. The virus poses a serious threat to public health in countries where there is an outbreak of disease. During the epidemic in West Africa, the risk of the EBOV transmission through substances of human origin (SoHO) increased. This also implies an increased risk of such situations outside the African continent. It can be reduced by using appropriate procedures such as donor qualifications and laboratory biosafety. The work highlighted EBOV transmission methods, clinical course of infection, diagnosis and treatment, especially with blood components, epidemiological situation and ways of preventing infection and control of epidemic. The assessment of the risk of transmission of the Ebola virus by SoHO and the probability of using EBOV as a biological weapon are discussed in detail. There are also recommendations on the biosafety of medical diagnostic laboratories.
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Keywords

Ebola virus; Ebola haemorrhagic fever; blood donor; safety of transfusions; substances of human origin (SoHO)

About this article
Title

Ebola virus — a potential challenge for blood donation, blood product therapy and public health

Journal

Journal of Transfusion Medicine

Issue

Vol 10, No 4 (2017)

Article type

Review paper

Pages

149-165

Published online

2018-01-17

Bibliographic record

Journal of Transfusion Medicine 2017;10(4):149-165.

Keywords

Ebola virus
Ebola haemorrhagic fever
blood donor
safety of transfusions
substances of human origin (SoHO)

Authors

Katarzyna Tkaczuk
Ryszard Pogłód
Piotr Grabarczyk

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