open access

Vol 68, No 1 (2017)
MARITIME/OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE Original article
Published online: 2017-03-30
Submitted: 2016-06-03
Accepted: 2016-12-08
Get Citation

Identification of World Health Organisation ship’s medicine chest contents by Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification codes

Seyed Khorsow Tayebati, Giulio Nittari, Syed Sarosh Mahdi, Nicholas Ioannidis, Fabio Sibilio, Francesco Amenta
DOI: 10.5603/IMH.2017.0007
·
Pubmed: 28357835
·
International Maritime Health 2017;68(1):39-45.

open access

Vol 68, No 1 (2017)
MARITIME/OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE Original article
Published online: 2017-03-30
Submitted: 2016-06-03
Accepted: 2016-12-08

Abstract

Background: Ships should carry mandatory given amounts of medicinal products and basic first aid items, collectively known as the ship’s medicine chest. Type and quantities of these products/items are suggested by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and regulated by individual flag states. In countries that lack national legislation, it is assumed that ships should follow WHO indications. An objective difficulty mainly involving vessels of international long-haul routes could be to recognise medicinal compounds obtained in other countries for replacing products used or expired. Language barrier may complicate, if not make it impossible to interpret the name of the medicinal product and/or of the active principle as indicated in a box printed in a completely different language. Handling of the ship’s pharmacy may be difficult in case of purchasing of drugs abroad due to language barriers. Medicinal products are identified by the international non-proprietary name of the active principle and/or by their chemical or invented (branded) names. This may make the identification of a medicinal product difficult, primarily if it is purchased abroad and the box and instructions are written in the language of the country where it is marketed. Therefore, there is a simpler classification system of the medicinal compounds the ATC (ATC: Anatomy, Therapeutic properties, Chemical, pharmacological properties). This paper has reviewed the list of medicinal products recommended by WHO and assigned to each one the ATC code as a solution to the problem of medicinal compounds organisation.

Materials and methods: Two researchers independently examined the list of medicinal compounds indicated in the third edition of the International Medical Guide for Ships and attributed to each compound the ATC code according to the 2013 Guidelines for ATC classification and Defined Daily Dose (DDD) assignment.

Results: The ATC code was attributed to the medicinal compounds indicated in the third edition of the International Medical Guide for Ships.

Conclusions: The availability of an objective system to identify medicinal products is required for ships, which will contribute in making the identification of items purchased simpler, making it easier to understand which drug seafarers need to be administer, and consequently reduce possible therapeutic mistakes.  

Abstract

Background: Ships should carry mandatory given amounts of medicinal products and basic first aid items, collectively known as the ship’s medicine chest. Type and quantities of these products/items are suggested by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and regulated by individual flag states. In countries that lack national legislation, it is assumed that ships should follow WHO indications. An objective difficulty mainly involving vessels of international long-haul routes could be to recognise medicinal compounds obtained in other countries for replacing products used or expired. Language barrier may complicate, if not make it impossible to interpret the name of the medicinal product and/or of the active principle as indicated in a box printed in a completely different language. Handling of the ship’s pharmacy may be difficult in case of purchasing of drugs abroad due to language barriers. Medicinal products are identified by the international non-proprietary name of the active principle and/or by their chemical or invented (branded) names. This may make the identification of a medicinal product difficult, primarily if it is purchased abroad and the box and instructions are written in the language of the country where it is marketed. Therefore, there is a simpler classification system of the medicinal compounds the ATC (ATC: Anatomy, Therapeutic properties, Chemical, pharmacological properties). This paper has reviewed the list of medicinal products recommended by WHO and assigned to each one the ATC code as a solution to the problem of medicinal compounds organisation.

Materials and methods: Two researchers independently examined the list of medicinal compounds indicated in the third edition of the International Medical Guide for Ships and attributed to each compound the ATC code according to the 2013 Guidelines for ATC classification and Defined Daily Dose (DDD) assignment.

Results: The ATC code was attributed to the medicinal compounds indicated in the third edition of the International Medical Guide for Ships.

Conclusions: The availability of an objective system to identify medicinal products is required for ships, which will contribute in making the identification of items purchased simpler, making it easier to understand which drug seafarers need to be administer, and consequently reduce possible therapeutic mistakes.  

Get Citation

Keywords

ATC code, medicine chest, ship’s pharmacy, identification of medicinal compounds

About this article
Title

Identification of World Health Organisation ship’s medicine chest contents by Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification codes

Journal

International Maritime Health

Issue

Vol 68, No 1 (2017)

Pages

39-45

Published online

2017-03-30

DOI

10.5603/IMH.2017.0007

Pubmed

28357835

Bibliographic record

International Maritime Health 2017;68(1):39-45.

Keywords

ATC code
medicine chest
ship’s pharmacy
identification of medicinal compounds

Authors

Seyed Khorsow Tayebati
Giulio Nittari
Syed Sarosh Mahdi
Nicholas Ioannidis
Fabio Sibilio
Francesco Amenta

References (20)
  1. Goethe WHG, Watson EN, Jones DT. Handbook of Nautical Medicine. Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1984.
  2. Amenta F, Dauri A, Rizzo N. Organization and activities of the International Radio Medical Centre (CIRM). J Telemed Telecare. 1996; 2(3): 125–131.
  3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service. The Ship’s Medicine Chest and Medical Aid at Sea. Office of the Surgeon General. Rockville 2003.
  4. Horward-Jones N. The scientific background of the International Sanitary Conferences 1851–1938. World Health Organization, Geneva 1975.
  5. World Health Organization. International Medical Guide for Ships (2nd edition); World Health Organization Geneva 1988, pp : 303–340.
  6. International Medical Guide for Ships: including the ship’s medicine chest (3rd edition). World Health Organization, Geneva 2007.
  7. Quantification Addendum: International Medical Guide for Ships (3rd edition). World Health Organization, Geneva 2010.
  8. Schlaich C, Reinke A, Sevenich C, et al. Guidance to the International Medical Guide for Ships (3rd edition): Interim advice regarding the best use of the medical chest for ocean-going merchant vessels without a doctor onboard. Int Mar Health. 2009; 60: 51–66.
  9. WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistic Methodology. Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Code. WHO, Oslo, Norway 2013. http://www.whocc.no
  10. Imming P, Buss T, Dailey LA, et al. A classification of drug substances according to their mechanism of action. Pharmazie. 2004; 59(8): 579–589.
  11. WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistic Methodology, 2016. ATC/DDD Index 2016. Oslo, Norway. http://www.whocc.no/ATC_DDD_INDEX.
  12. European Commission Public Health. Pharmaceuticals – Community Register. http://ec.europa.eu/health/documents/community-register/htlm/atc.htm?print=true.
  13. United Kingdom Maritime and Coastguard Agency. MSN 1768 Ship’s Medical Stores, London 2003.
  14. Norwegian Regulation of 9 March 2001 No 439 concerning medical supplies on ships. Oslo, 2001.
  15. Netherlands Shipping Inspectorate. Medische uitrusting aan boord van zeeschepen en vissersvaartuigen/Medical supplies on board Dutch sea-going vessels and fishing vessel. Den Haag 16 July. 2006.
  16. MSC/Circ. 1042 Emergency medical kit/bag and medical consideration on ro-ro passenger ships not normally carrying a medical doctor, London. 2002: 28 May.
  17. Ministerio de Empleo y Seguridad Social - Guia Sanitaria a Bordo. Ministerio de Empleo y Seguridad Social, 1995.
  18. Direction générale des Infrastructures, des Transports et de la Mer – Affaires Maritimes – Dispositions Sanitaires et Medicales. Paris. : 1996.
  19. See-Berufsgenossenschaft. German Medical Guide for Ships Manual for Captains and Ship's Officers. Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur Berlin. 2016.
  20. Decreto Interministeriale 1 ottobre 2015 - Modificazioni della Tabella allegata al decreto 25 maggio 1988, n. 279, che indica i medicinali, gli oggetti di medicatura e gli utensili di cui devono essere provviste le navi nazionali destinate al traffico mercantile, alla pesca e al diporto nautico. Gazzetta Ufficiale Repubblica Italiana. 18 November. 2015.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl