open access

Vol 65, No 4 (2014)
MARITIME PSYCHOLOGY Original article
Published online: 2014-12-17
Submitted: 2014-12-17
Accepted: 2014-12-17
Get Citation

Sea piracy sequelae: assessment according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5

Antonio Rosario Ziello, Angiola Maria Fasanaro, Cristina Petrelli, Giovanna Ricci, Ascanio Sirignano, Francesco Amenta
DOI: 10.5603/IMH.2014.0043
·
International Maritime Health 2014;65(4):230-234.

open access

Vol 65, No 4 (2014)
MARITIME PSYCHOLOGY Original article
Published online: 2014-12-17
Submitted: 2014-12-17
Accepted: 2014-12-17

Abstract

Background: Our previous studies have investigated the psychological consequences of kidnapping in a group of Italian seafarers assaulted by sea pirates and held in captivity and in their family members by the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-4. These studies have shown that both the victims and the family members showed significant psychological disturbances, corresponding to a chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), in the victims, and a pattern of anxiety and depression in their family members. After publication of these studies, an updated edition of the DSM became available, namely, the DSM-5. The DSM-5 redefines some diagnostic criteria, including those related to the PTSD. This work was focused on the re-evaluation of the results of our previous studies in the light of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria.

Materials and methods: Sixteen Italians including 4 kidnapped seafarers and 12 family members were examined by a semi-structured interview followed by Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-DX) and the Cognitive Behaviour al Assessment (CBA 2.0) for victims and by State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) X-1 and X-2 of CBA 2.0 and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) for family members. Data already obtained were reviewed and re-analysed according to the DSM-5 criteria and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5).

Results: The use of the CAPS-5 did not modify the diagnosis for the victims’ group: 3 of 4 had a PTSD diagnosis performed through the CAPS-5. Seven of 12 family members had PTSD diagnosis performed through the CAPS-5, with negative cognitions and mood symptoms being those obtaining the highest score.

Conclusions: Using DSM-5 criteria, the diagnosis of PTSD in the direct victims of piracy was confirmed. The same diagnosis could apply to a group of their family members. Besides anxiety and fear, in fact, we found in 7 out 12 subjects the presence of symptoms included by the DSM-5 in the PTSD spectrum. These symptoms were: avoidance, negative alterations in mood and cognition, blame of self or others. The use of updated diagnostic criteria may enable more correct assessment of the consequences of piracy acts. This may be also useful for establishing proper compensations for the damage suffered by seafarers, depending on the degree of disability resulting from the criminal acts they suffered.

Abstract

Background: Our previous studies have investigated the psychological consequences of kidnapping in a group of Italian seafarers assaulted by sea pirates and held in captivity and in their family members by the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-4. These studies have shown that both the victims and the family members showed significant psychological disturbances, corresponding to a chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), in the victims, and a pattern of anxiety and depression in their family members. After publication of these studies, an updated edition of the DSM became available, namely, the DSM-5. The DSM-5 redefines some diagnostic criteria, including those related to the PTSD. This work was focused on the re-evaluation of the results of our previous studies in the light of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria.

Materials and methods: Sixteen Italians including 4 kidnapped seafarers and 12 family members were examined by a semi-structured interview followed by Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-DX) and the Cognitive Behaviour al Assessment (CBA 2.0) for victims and by State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) X-1 and X-2 of CBA 2.0 and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) for family members. Data already obtained were reviewed and re-analysed according to the DSM-5 criteria and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5).

Results: The use of the CAPS-5 did not modify the diagnosis for the victims’ group: 3 of 4 had a PTSD diagnosis performed through the CAPS-5. Seven of 12 family members had PTSD diagnosis performed through the CAPS-5, with negative cognitions and mood symptoms being those obtaining the highest score.

Conclusions: Using DSM-5 criteria, the diagnosis of PTSD in the direct victims of piracy was confirmed. The same diagnosis could apply to a group of their family members. Besides anxiety and fear, in fact, we found in 7 out 12 subjects the presence of symptoms included by the DSM-5 in the PTSD spectrum. These symptoms were: avoidance, negative alterations in mood and cognition, blame of self or others. The use of updated diagnostic criteria may enable more correct assessment of the consequences of piracy acts. This may be also useful for establishing proper compensations for the damage suffered by seafarers, depending on the degree of disability resulting from the criminal acts they suffered.

Get Citation

Keywords

maritime piracy, victims, relatives, DSM-5, psychopathology

About this article
Title

Sea piracy sequelae: assessment according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5

Journal

International Maritime Health

Issue

Vol 65, No 4 (2014)

Pages

230-234

Published online

2014-12-17

DOI

10.5603/IMH.2014.0043

Bibliographic record

International Maritime Health 2014;65(4):230-234.

Keywords

maritime piracy
victims
relatives
DSM-5
psychopathology

Authors

Antonio Rosario Ziello
Angiola Maria Fasanaro
Cristina Petrelli
Giovanna Ricci
Ascanio Sirignano
Francesco Amenta

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl