Vol 74, No 3 (2023)
Letter to the Editor
Published online: 2023-09-26

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Another point of view to complete the Rinaldy’s article about shipping industry safety

Richard Pougnet12, Laurence Pougnet13, Brice Loddé
Pubmed: 37781949
IMH 2023;74(3):207-208.


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Int Marit Health
2023; 74, 3: 207–208
Copyright © 2023 PSMTTM
ISSN 1641-9251
eISSN 2081-3252

Another point of view to complete the Rinaldy’s article about shipping industry safety

Richard Pougnet12Laurence Pougnet13Brice Loddé1
1French Society of Maritime Medicine, Brest, France
2Laoratoire d’Etudes et de Recherches en Sociologie (LABERS), EA 3149, Sociology Research Unit, University of Western Britany, Brest, France
3Military Hospital, Clermont-Tonnerre, Brest, France

Richard Pougnet, MD, PhD (Philosophy), Centre de Pathologies Professionnelles et Environnementales, CHU Morvan, 2 av Foch, 29200 Brest France,
e-mail: richard.pougnet@live.fr

Received: 8.06.2023 Accepted: 28.06.2023

This article is available in open access under Creative Common Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) license, allowing to download articles and share them with others as long as they credit the authors and the publisher, but without permission to change them in any way or use them commercially.

Rinaldy’s article about shipping industry safety was very relevant [1]. The subject is delicate and critical because of the number of accidents and severe accidents among seafarers [2, 3]. The author has thus made a review of the literature. This will help for future research and to improve safety policies in the Indonesia shipping industry. However, as the author points out, the review has limitations inherent in its method: the quality of the data thus collected depends on the database, keywords, etc. But there is also another bias: using Scopus, the humanities may be underrepresented. It’s why, we would like to complete Rinaldi’s research by providing some notions from the human sciences.

For example, the author highlights the importance of the literature about human error, which would be responsible for 80% to 85% of accidents. In French-language humanities, there are interesting resources for taking a step back from this type of data.

On the one hand, it should be remembered that human error can sometimes be the apparent cause of an accident. The work context itself could explain that a person commits imprudence or makes a mistake. Time pressure, economic issues, fatigue, jet lag during expensive freight transport can favour this ultimate mistake made by a person. Beyond these organizational and economic aspects, there may be individual factors of human error: one person may perform less well in one task than another. In France, the current of work psychology and ergonomics have clinically studied how employees, whatever their work environment, can compensate for a disparity in performance. They could sometimes develop another way of working, in a more individual and yet just as efficient [4].

On the other hand, the literature about air transport allows having a more critical reading about the role of the human factor. Overall, two schools of thought exist. One of it defends the idea the work should be controlled strictly. It might reduce the risk of human error. The second “school” privileges an environment of work less controlled. Human is the ultimate barrier before an accident, so that he needs more freedom and autonomy in work [5].

Finally, the currents of psychodynamics and psychoanalysis of groups offer interesting tools to better understand certain reactions to rejection of safety instructions or of the wearing of protection. Depending on the work groups, it may happen that the people most respectful of the rules and safety instructions are rejected by the other members of the work team. Remembering back on safety rules can generate anxiety against to which some small groups will implement inappropriate coping strategies, such as denial [6].

Rinaldi’s article could thus be enlightened by these approaches of psychology, science of education and sociology, in order to complete the many lines of research identified by the author.

Conflict of interest: None declared


  1. Rinaldy DY. Bibliometric and systematic literature review on safety management in the shipping industry and further development in Indonesia. Int Marit Health. 2023; 74(1): 24–35, doi: 10.5603/IMH.2023.0003, indexed in Pubmed: 36974490.
  2. Koçak H, Altıntaş HK. Evaluation of maritime accident reports of main search and rescue coordination centre between 2001 and 2012. Int Marit Health. 2021; 72(3): 163–171, doi: 10.5603/IMH.2021.0032, indexed in Pubmed: 34604984.
  3. DeLoughery EP. Characteristics of fatal marine accidents. Int Marit Health. 2022; 73(3): 115–116, doi: 10.5603/IMH.2022.0022, indexed in Pubmed: 36217975.
  4. Clot Y, Leplat J. La méthode clinique en ergonomie et en psychologie du travail. Le travail humain. 2005; 68(4): 289, doi: 10.3917/th.684.0289.
  5. Barnier LM. Former aux facteurs humains pour exorciser le risque aérien. Éducation Permanente. 2020; N° 224(3): 67–75, doi: 10.3917/edpe.224.0067.
  6. Jegaden D, Jégo C, Delbrouck P, Bihioux A, Lucas D. La santé mentale des gens de mer. Bod; Norderstedt, 2022.