open access

Vol 62, No 2 (2011)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2011-09-09
Submitted: 2013-02-18
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Surveillance and control of communicable diseases related to passenger ships in Europe

Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Varvara A. Mouchtouri, Carmen Varela Martinez, Gordon Nichols, Tobias Riemer, Jelena Rabinina, Corien Swan, Nina Pirnat, Ona Sokolova, Elina Kostara, George Rachiotis, Rainer Meilicke, Clara Schlaich, Christopher LR Bartlett, Jenny Kremastinou, the SHIPSAN partnership
International Maritime Health 2011;62(2):138-147.

open access

Vol 62, No 2 (2011)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2011-09-09
Submitted: 2013-02-18

Abstract

This study was conducted within the European SHIPSAN (ship sanitation) project and aims at exploring the legislative framework and current practices related to surveillance of communicable diseases and response aboard passenger ships in Europe. A detailed questionnaire was disseminated and completed by 59 competent authorities in 27 European countries. The majority of competent authorities used national legislation without special provisions for passenger ships. Only 20% had specific provisions for ships regarding quarantine, while a smaller proportion of new Member States (MS) have specific legislation in comparison with old MS (p = 0.01). The Maritime Declaration of Health (MDH) was the main reporting tool used. About 30.5% of the competent authorities declared that they require submission of MDH by all arriving ships, but 28.8% only from affected areas, and 11.9% never require MDH. A total of 45 outbreaks or incidents (36 gastrointestinal, 1 incident of legionellosis, 3 respiratory, and 1 influenza-like illness outbreak, occupational tuberculosis, varicella, scabies, and meningitis) were reported to EU competent authorities during 2006. About 75% of the responders stated that there are gaps in the surveillance and control of communicable diseases. A diversity of approaches in EU countries, and gaps regarding surveillance and response and training needs of personnel were identified.
(Int Marit Health 2011; 62, 2: 138–147)

Abstract

This study was conducted within the European SHIPSAN (ship sanitation) project and aims at exploring the legislative framework and current practices related to surveillance of communicable diseases and response aboard passenger ships in Europe. A detailed questionnaire was disseminated and completed by 59 competent authorities in 27 European countries. The majority of competent authorities used national legislation without special provisions for passenger ships. Only 20% had specific provisions for ships regarding quarantine, while a smaller proportion of new Member States (MS) have specific legislation in comparison with old MS (p = 0.01). The Maritime Declaration of Health (MDH) was the main reporting tool used. About 30.5% of the competent authorities declared that they require submission of MDH by all arriving ships, but 28.8% only from affected areas, and 11.9% never require MDH. A total of 45 outbreaks or incidents (36 gastrointestinal, 1 incident of legionellosis, 3 respiratory, and 1 influenza-like illness outbreak, occupational tuberculosis, varicella, scabies, and meningitis) were reported to EU competent authorities during 2006. About 75% of the responders stated that there are gaps in the surveillance and control of communicable diseases. A diversity of approaches in EU countries, and gaps regarding surveillance and response and training needs of personnel were identified.
(Int Marit Health 2011; 62, 2: 138–147)
Get Citation

Keywords

surveillance; passenger ship; communicable diseases; port health; outbreak; Europe

About this article
Title

Surveillance and control of communicable diseases related to passenger ships in Europe

Journal

International Maritime Health

Issue

Vol 62, No 2 (2011)

Pages

138-147

Published online

2011-09-09

Bibliographic record

International Maritime Health 2011;62(2):138-147.

Keywords

surveillance
passenger ship
communicable diseases
port health
outbreak
Europe

Authors

Christos Hadjichristodoulou
Varvara A. Mouchtouri
Carmen Varela Martinez
Gordon Nichols
Tobias Riemer
Jelena Rabinina
Corien Swan
Nina Pirnat
Ona Sokolova
Elina Kostara
George Rachiotis
Rainer Meilicke
Clara Schlaich
Christopher LR Bartlett
Jenny Kremastinou
the SHIPSAN partnership

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