Tom 15, Nr 2 (2021)
Inne materiały uzgodnione z Redakcją
Opublikowany online: 2021-05-05

dostęp otwarty

Wyświetlenia strony 1004
Wyświetlenia/pobrania artykułu 205
Pobierz cytowanie

Eksport do Mediów Społecznościowych

Eksport do Mediów Społecznościowych

Dieta wegańska w prewencji i leczeniu wybranych chorób cywilizacyjnych

Klaudia Wiśniewska, Katarzyna Okręglicka, Klaudia Czajkowska, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch
Forum Medycyny Rodzinnej 2021;15(2):88-95.

Streszczenie

W ostatnich latach dieta wegańska stała się popularnym modelem żywienia, szczególnie w krajach rozwiniętych. Odsetek wegan w Europie to około 1–10% populacji. Amerykańskie Stowarzyszenie Dietetyczne od lat wskazuje, że odpowiednio zbilansowane i dobrze zaplanowane diety wegetariańskie, w tym dieta wegańska, są odpowiednie na wszystkich etapach życia człowieka. Prawidłowo skomponowane diety wegetariańskie realizują zapotrzebowanie na wszystkie niezbędne składniki odżywcze. Dieta wegańska zasadniczo zmniejsza ryzyko rozwoju przewlekłych niezakaźnych chorób zwyrodnieniowych, takich jak otyłość, cukrzyca typu 2, nadciśnienie tętnicze, miażdżyca czy wybrane nowotwory a ponadto wymaga mniej zasobów naturalnych do produkcji żywności niż dieta tradycyjna. Ponadto sprzyja utrzymaniu restrykcji kalorycznych u pacjentów z otyłością i może być również przydatnym narzędziem w leczeniu wielu innych chorób.

Artykuł dostępny w formacie PDF

Pokaż PDF Pobierz plik PDF

Referencje

  1. Chen C, Chaudhary A, Mathys A. Dietary Change Scenarios and Implications for Environmental, Nutrition, Human Health and Economic Dimensions of Food Sustainability. Nutrients. 2019; 11(4).
  2. Borude S. Which is a good diet-veg or non-veg? Faith-based vegetarianism for protection from obesity-a myth or actuality? Obes Surg. 2019; 29(4): 1276–1280.
  3. Allès B, Baudry J, Méjean C, et al. Comparison of sociodemographic and nutritional characteristics between self-reported vegetarians, vegans, and meat-eaters from the NutriNet-Santé Study. Nutrients. 2017; 9(9).
  4. Fresán U, Sabaté J. Vegetarian diets: planetary health and its alignment with human health. Adv Nutr. 2019; 10(Suppl_4): S380–S388.
  5. Radnitz C, Beezhold B, DiMatteo J. Investigation of lifestyle choices of individuals following a vegan diet for health and ethical reasons. Appetite. 2015; 90: 31–36.
  6. Oussalah A, Levy J, Berthezène C, et al. Health outcomes associated with vegetarian diets: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Clin Nutr. 2020; 39(11): 3283–3307.
  7. Janssen M, Busch C, Rödiger M, et al. Motives of consumers following a vegan diet and their attitudes towards animal agriculture. Appetite. 2016; 105: 643–651.
  8. Melina V, Craig W, Levin S. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: vegetarian diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016; 116(12): 1970–1980.
  9. Bowen KJ, Sullivan VK, Kris-Etherton PM, et al. Nutrition and cardiovascular disease - an update. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2018; 20(2): 8.
  10. Micha R, Peñalvo JL, Cudhea F, et al. Association between dietary factors and mortality from heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in the United States. JAMA. 2017; 317(9): 912–924.
  11. Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, et al. Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 1998; 280(23): 2001–2007.
  12. Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, et al. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. Lancet. 1990; 336(8708): 129–133.
  13. Dinu M, Abbate R, Gensini GF, et al. Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017; 57(17): 3640–3649.
  14. Wang F, Zheng J, Yang Bo, et al. Effects of vegetarian diets on blood lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015; 4(10): e002408.
  15. Kahleova H, Levin S, Barnard N. Cardio-metabolic benefits of plant-based diets. Nutrients. 2017; 9(8).
  16. Jenkins D, Wong J, Kendall C, et al. The effect of a plant-based low-carbohydrate (“Eco-Atkins”) diet on body weight and blood lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic subjects. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2009; 169(11): 1046.
  17. Lütjohann D, Meyer S, von Bergmann K, et al. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis in vegetarians and omnivores. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018; 62(6): e1700689.
  18. Barnard ND, Alwarith J, Rembert E, et al. A mediterranean diet and low-fat vegan diet to improve body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors: a randomized, cross-over trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 2021 [Epub ahead of print]: 1–13.
  19. Mattos CB, Viana LV, Paula TP, et al. Increased protein intake is associated with uncontrolled blood pressure by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr. 2015; 34(3): 232–239.
  20. Appleby PN, Davey GK, Key TJ. Hypertension and blood pressure among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans in EPIC-Oxford. Public Health Nutr. 2002; 5(5): 645–654.
  21. Yokoyama Y, Nishimura K, Barnard ND, et al. Vegetarian diets and blood pressure: a meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014; 174(4): 577–587.
  22. Lopez PD, Cativo EH, Atlas SA, et al. The effect of vegan diets on blood pressure in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med. 2019; 132(7): 875–883.e7.
  23. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults. Lancet. 2017; 390(10113): 2627–2642.
  24. Thedford K, Raj S. A vegetarian diet for weight management. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011; 111(6): 816–818.
  25. Davey GK, Spencer EA, Appleby PN, et al. EPIC-Oxford: lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33 883 meat-eaters and 31 546 non meat-eaters in the UK. Public Health Nutr. 2003; 6(3): 259–269.
  26. Barnard ND, Levin SM, Yokoyama Y. A systematic review and meta-analysis of changes in body weight in clinical trials of vegetarian diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015; 115(6): 954–969.
  27. Huang RY, Huang CC, Hu FB, et al. Vegetarian diets and weight reduction: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Gen Intern Med. 2016; 31(1): 109–116.
  28. Wright N, Wilson L, Smith M, et al. The BROAD study: A randomised controlled trial using a whole food plant-based diet in the community for obesity, ischaemic heart disease or diabetes. Nutr Diabetes. 2017; 7(3): e256.
  29. Ley SH, Hamdy O, Mohan V, et al. Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: dietary components and nutritional strategies. Lancet. 2014; 383(9933): 1999–2007.
  30. Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G, Lampousi AM, et al. Food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 2017; 32(5): 363–375.
  31. McMacken M, Shah S. A plant-based diet for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. J Geriatr Cardiol. 2017; 14(5): 342–354.
  32. Pawlak R. Vegetarian diets in the prevention and management of diabetes and its complications. Diabetes Spectr. 2017; 30(2): 82–88.
  33. Tonstad S, Stewart K, Oda K, et al. Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013; 23(4): 292–299.
  34. Chen Z, Zuurmond MG, van der Schaft N, et al. Plant versus animal based diets and insulin resistance, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: the Rotterdam Study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2018; 33(9): 883–893.
  35. Yokoyama Y, Barnard ND, Levin SM, et al. Vegetarian diets and glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2014; 4(5): 373–382.
  36. Kahleova H, Tura A, Hill M, et al. A plant-based dietary intervention improves beta-cell function and insulin resistance in overweight adults: a 16-week randomized clinical trial. Nutrients. 2018; 10(2).
  37. Wiśniewska K. Diety roślinne – charakterystyka, zalecenia oraz postawy konsumenckie. PRZEMYSŁ SPOŻYWCZY. 2020; 1(5): 42–45.