open access

Vol 82, No 3 (2023)
Review article
Submitted: 2022-05-24
Accepted: 2022-08-01
Published online: 2022-08-17
Get Citation

Systematic literature study of trachea and bronchus morphology in children and adults

Z. K. Coşkun1, K. Atalar1, B. Akar1
·
Pubmed: 36000591
·
Folia Morphol 2023;82(3):457-466.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey

open access

Vol 82, No 3 (2023)
REVIEW ARTICLES
Submitted: 2022-05-24
Accepted: 2022-08-01
Published online: 2022-08-17

Abstract

Understanding the dimensions of the lower airway is critical for performing respiratory
surgery, selecting and designing appropriate airway equipment, and removing
aspirated foreign bodies via bronchoscopy, anaesthesia, and radiography. The
purpose of this study was to analyse the trachea and bronchus morphologically
in children and adults, as well as to standardise the data for these structures’
measurements. Various databases were reviewed for studies on lower airway
dimensions. The criteria for inclusion and exclusion were established. Finally, it
was agreed to look into 28 studies that took place between 1984 and 2021. The
length of the trachea, its anterior-posterior (AP) and transverse dimensions, the
lengths and transverse diameters of the right and left major bronchus, and the
subcarinal angle were also investigated in the study. In studies where measurements
were performed with different methods and procedures. It was revealed
that age and gender were effective in the difference in lower respiratory tract
dimensions. The mean values of all parameters were greater in adults than in
children, the AP diameter of the trachea in adults was greater than the transverse
diameter. In children, it was observed that the transverse diameter was larger
than the AP diameter on average, the left main bronchus was longer than the
right main bronchus, and the transverse diameter was smaller than the right main
bronchus in most of the studies. The articles reviewed for this study revealed that
measurements were done using a variety of different procedures and approaches,
and the resulting data were inconsistent and could not be standardized. The
data collected will be beneficial both conceptually and clinically; we believe that
additional comparison research involving children and adults in bigger groups are
necessary.

Abstract

Understanding the dimensions of the lower airway is critical for performing respiratory
surgery, selecting and designing appropriate airway equipment, and removing
aspirated foreign bodies via bronchoscopy, anaesthesia, and radiography. The
purpose of this study was to analyse the trachea and bronchus morphologically
in children and adults, as well as to standardise the data for these structures’
measurements. Various databases were reviewed for studies on lower airway
dimensions. The criteria for inclusion and exclusion were established. Finally, it
was agreed to look into 28 studies that took place between 1984 and 2021. The
length of the trachea, its anterior-posterior (AP) and transverse dimensions, the
lengths and transverse diameters of the right and left major bronchus, and the
subcarinal angle were also investigated in the study. In studies where measurements
were performed with different methods and procedures. It was revealed
that age and gender were effective in the difference in lower respiratory tract
dimensions. The mean values of all parameters were greater in adults than in
children, the AP diameter of the trachea in adults was greater than the transverse
diameter. In children, it was observed that the transverse diameter was larger
than the AP diameter on average, the left main bronchus was longer than the
right main bronchus, and the transverse diameter was smaller than the right main
bronchus in most of the studies. The articles reviewed for this study revealed that
measurements were done using a variety of different procedures and approaches,
and the resulting data were inconsistent and could not be standardized. The
data collected will be beneficial both conceptually and clinically; we believe that
additional comparison research involving children and adults in bigger groups are
necessary.

Get Citation

Keywords

trachea, bronchus, morphology, adult, child

About this article
Title

Systematic literature study of trachea and bronchus morphology in children and adults

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 82, No 3 (2023)

Article type

Review article

Pages

457-466

Published online

2022-08-17

Page views

1328

Article views/downloads

934

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2022.0073

Pubmed

36000591

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2023;82(3):457-466.

Keywords

trachea
bronchus
morphology
adult
child

Authors

Z. K. Coşkun
K. Atalar
B. Akar

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