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Vol 79, No 4 (2020)
Original article
Published online: 2019-12-30
Submitted: 2019-11-09
Accepted: 2019-12-16
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Effect of high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome on the pituitary-gonadal axis from adolescence through adulthood in male albino rats and the possible protective role of ginger extract. A biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical study

A. E. El-Mehi, M. A. Faried
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2019.0139
·
Pubmed: 31886878
·
Folia Morphol 2020;79(4):690-708.

open access

Vol 79, No 4 (2020)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2019-12-30
Submitted: 2019-11-09
Accepted: 2019-12-16

Abstract

Background: This work was designed to clarify, for the first time up to our knowledge, the effects of high-fructose diet (HFrD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) on the pituitary-gonadal axis of adolescent male rats continuing through adulthood period and to evaluate the possible role of ginger extract in ameliorating
these effects.

Materials and methods: Forty 4-week-old male albino rats, treated for 8 weeks, were randomly divided into four equal groups; control (fed standard diet), ginger extract-treated (500 mg/kg once daily orally by gavage), HFrD-induced MetS (fed a diet containing 60% fructose), HFrD and ginger groups. The assessment methods included biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical studies.

Results: High-fructose diet-fed rats exhibited a picture similar to MetS in the form of increased body weight and serum levels of glucose and insulin with an elevated HOMA-IR reflecting insulin resistance as well as dyslipidaemia. Lipid peroxidation (increased malondialdehyde) and oxidative stress (decreased superoxide
dismutase) were implicated in this syndrome. This group exhibited a significant decrease in testicular weight and the levels of reproductive hormones (LH, FSH and testosterone). The pituitary gonadotrophs showed electron dense nuclei, large cytoplasmic vacuoles, destructed organelles in addition to decreased number of secretory granules. Furthermore, testicular specimens presented marked alterations. There were disorganised shrunken tubules with irregular basement membranes, reduced germinal epithelial thickness, vacuolations and degenerated mitochondria in the spermatogenic cells. Beclin 1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunoexpressions were significantly downregulated with HFrD-induced MetS. Ginger extract supplementation proved to be a potent protective agent against these harmful effects through its antioxidant, hypoglycaemic, insulinotropic, androgenic and hypolipidaemic effects in addition to its ability to induce testicular autophagy.

Conclusions: Consumption of HFrD induced MetS and proved to have harmful effects on the pituitary-testicular axis. Moreover, this work provided a new insight into the possible use of ginger extract to alleviate the main features of MetS and protect the pituitary-gonadal axis from the damaging effects of HFrD-induced MetS.

Abstract

Background: This work was designed to clarify, for the first time up to our knowledge, the effects of high-fructose diet (HFrD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) on the pituitary-gonadal axis of adolescent male rats continuing through adulthood period and to evaluate the possible role of ginger extract in ameliorating
these effects.

Materials and methods: Forty 4-week-old male albino rats, treated for 8 weeks, were randomly divided into four equal groups; control (fed standard diet), ginger extract-treated (500 mg/kg once daily orally by gavage), HFrD-induced MetS (fed a diet containing 60% fructose), HFrD and ginger groups. The assessment methods included biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical studies.

Results: High-fructose diet-fed rats exhibited a picture similar to MetS in the form of increased body weight and serum levels of glucose and insulin with an elevated HOMA-IR reflecting insulin resistance as well as dyslipidaemia. Lipid peroxidation (increased malondialdehyde) and oxidative stress (decreased superoxide
dismutase) were implicated in this syndrome. This group exhibited a significant decrease in testicular weight and the levels of reproductive hormones (LH, FSH and testosterone). The pituitary gonadotrophs showed electron dense nuclei, large cytoplasmic vacuoles, destructed organelles in addition to decreased number of secretory granules. Furthermore, testicular specimens presented marked alterations. There were disorganised shrunken tubules with irregular basement membranes, reduced germinal epithelial thickness, vacuolations and degenerated mitochondria in the spermatogenic cells. Beclin 1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunoexpressions were significantly downregulated with HFrD-induced MetS. Ginger extract supplementation proved to be a potent protective agent against these harmful effects through its antioxidant, hypoglycaemic, insulinotropic, androgenic and hypolipidaemic effects in addition to its ability to induce testicular autophagy.

Conclusions: Consumption of HFrD induced MetS and proved to have harmful effects on the pituitary-testicular axis. Moreover, this work provided a new insight into the possible use of ginger extract to alleviate the main features of MetS and protect the pituitary-gonadal axis from the damaging effects of HFrD-induced MetS.

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Keywords

high fructose, metabolic syndrome, ginger, pituitary, testis, oxidative stress, histopathology, immunohistochemistry

About this article
Title

Effect of high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome on the pituitary-gonadal axis from adolescence through adulthood in male albino rats and the possible protective role of ginger extract. A biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical study

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 79, No 4 (2020)

Article type

Original article

Pages

690-708

Published online

2019-12-30

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2019.0139

Pubmed

31886878

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2020;79(4):690-708.

Keywords

high fructose
metabolic syndrome
ginger
pituitary
testis
oxidative stress
histopathology
immunohistochemistry

Authors

A. E. El-Mehi
M. A. Faried

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