open access

Vol 71, No 3 (2012)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2012-08-31
Submitted: 2012-02-22
Accepted: 2012-04-20
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Functional Hand Proportion is Approximated by the Fibonacci Series

K.W.-Q. Choo, W.-K. Quah, G.-H. Chang, J.Y. Chan
Folia Morphol 2012;71(3):148-153.

open access

Vol 71, No 3 (2012)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2012-08-31
Submitted: 2012-02-22
Accepted: 2012-04-20

Abstract

The debatable relationship of functional human hand proportion with the Fibonacci series has remained an obscure scientific enigma short of clinical interest. The main difficulty of proving such a relationship lies in defining what should constitute true "functional" proportion. In this study, we re-evaluate this unique relationship using hand flexion creases as anatomical surrogates for the functional axes of joint rotation. Standardized desktop photocopies of palmar views of both hands in full digital extension and abduction were obtained from 100 healthy male volunteers of Chinese ethnicity. The functional axes were represented by the distal digital crease (distal interphalangeal joint, DIPJ), proximal digital crease (proximal interphalangeal joint, PIPJ), as well as the midpoint between the palmar digital and transverse palmar creases (metacarpophalangeal joint, MCPJ). The ratio of DIPJ-Fingertip:PIPJ-DIPJ:MCPJ-PIPJ (p3:p2:p1) were measured by two independent observers and represented as standard deviation about the mean, and then compared to the theoretical ratio of 1:1:2. Our results showed that, for the 2nd to 5th digits, the p2:p3 ratios were 0.97±0.09, 1.10±0.10, 1.04±0.12 and 0.80±0.08 respectively; whilst the p1:p2 ratios were 1.91±0.17, 1.98±0.14, 1.89±0.16 and 2.09±0.24 respectively. When the data were analyzed for all digits, they showed a combined p3:p2:p1 ratio of 1:0.98:2.01. In conclusion, our results suggest that functional human hand proportion, as defined by flexion creases, is approximated by the Fibonacci series.

Abstract

The debatable relationship of functional human hand proportion with the Fibonacci series has remained an obscure scientific enigma short of clinical interest. The main difficulty of proving such a relationship lies in defining what should constitute true "functional" proportion. In this study, we re-evaluate this unique relationship using hand flexion creases as anatomical surrogates for the functional axes of joint rotation. Standardized desktop photocopies of palmar views of both hands in full digital extension and abduction were obtained from 100 healthy male volunteers of Chinese ethnicity. The functional axes were represented by the distal digital crease (distal interphalangeal joint, DIPJ), proximal digital crease (proximal interphalangeal joint, PIPJ), as well as the midpoint between the palmar digital and transverse palmar creases (metacarpophalangeal joint, MCPJ). The ratio of DIPJ-Fingertip:PIPJ-DIPJ:MCPJ-PIPJ (p3:p2:p1) were measured by two independent observers and represented as standard deviation about the mean, and then compared to the theoretical ratio of 1:1:2. Our results showed that, for the 2nd to 5th digits, the p2:p3 ratios were 0.97±0.09, 1.10±0.10, 1.04±0.12 and 0.80±0.08 respectively; whilst the p1:p2 ratios were 1.91±0.17, 1.98±0.14, 1.89±0.16 and 2.09±0.24 respectively. When the data were analyzed for all digits, they showed a combined p3:p2:p1 ratio of 1:0.98:2.01. In conclusion, our results suggest that functional human hand proportion, as defined by flexion creases, is approximated by the Fibonacci series.

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Keywords

2D:4D ratio; Littler series; Golden proportion

About this article
Title

Functional Hand Proportion is Approximated by the Fibonacci Series

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 71, No 3 (2012)

Pages

148-153

Published online

2012-08-31

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2012;71(3):148-153.

Keywords

2D:4D ratio
Littler series
Golden proportion

Authors

K.W.-Q. Choo
W.-K. Quah
G.-H. Chang
J.Y. Chan

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