open access

Vol 61, No 3 (2023)
Original paper
Submitted: 2023-04-23
Accepted: 2023-09-24
Published online: 2023-10-03
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Inhibition of autophagy promotes sonodynamic therapy-induced apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells

Xiaoxue Du1, Jiaming Song1, Ziwen Zhang1, Jia Liu1, Dan Xu1
·
Pubmed: 37787036
·
Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2023;61(3):172-182.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150081, P.R. China

open access

Vol 61, No 3 (2023)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Submitted: 2023-04-23
Accepted: 2023-09-24
Published online: 2023-10-03

Abstract

Introduction. Sonodynamic therapy (SDT), a promising non-invasive therapeutic modality, has attracted increasing attention in the treatment of pancreatic cancer (PC). At present, the role of autophagy in SDT of PC remains unclear. This study aims to explore the role of autophagy in SDT of PC and its effect on apoptosis of PC cells. Material and methods. PC cells (Capan-1 and BxPC-3) underwent incubation with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or/and ultrasound (US) exposure (control, 5-ALA, US, and SDT groups), followed by measurement of cell apoptosis and autophagy. Specifically, cell viability, apoptosis, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (cleaved Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2) were measured using CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis, respectively. The mitochondrial morphology was observed with the transmission electron microscopy, accompanied by the detection of autophagosome marker (LC3) co-located with Mito and the protein expression of LC3II/I. Before SDT treatment, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA and the apoptosis inhibitor z-VAD were respectively added to PC cell cultures to evaluate the effects of autophagy inhibition on apoptosis and apoptosis inhibition on autophagy in PC cells. Results. Compared with the control group, cell viability was inhibited and cell apoptosis and autophagy were enhanced in the SDT group, while cell viability, autophagy, and apoptosis in the 5-ALA and US groups were not significantly changed. Moreover, 3-MA treatment inhibited autophagy and accelerated apoptosis, whereas z-VAD treatment reduced apoptosis but did not affect autophagy in PC cells. Conclusions. Autophagy was activated in SDT-treated PC cells, and inhibition of autophagy promoted cell apoptosis in PC cells.

Abstract

Introduction. Sonodynamic therapy (SDT), a promising non-invasive therapeutic modality, has attracted increasing attention in the treatment of pancreatic cancer (PC). At present, the role of autophagy in SDT of PC remains unclear. This study aims to explore the role of autophagy in SDT of PC and its effect on apoptosis of PC cells. Material and methods. PC cells (Capan-1 and BxPC-3) underwent incubation with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or/and ultrasound (US) exposure (control, 5-ALA, US, and SDT groups), followed by measurement of cell apoptosis and autophagy. Specifically, cell viability, apoptosis, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (cleaved Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2) were measured using CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis, respectively. The mitochondrial morphology was observed with the transmission electron microscopy, accompanied by the detection of autophagosome marker (LC3) co-located with Mito and the protein expression of LC3II/I. Before SDT treatment, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA and the apoptosis inhibitor z-VAD were respectively added to PC cell cultures to evaluate the effects of autophagy inhibition on apoptosis and apoptosis inhibition on autophagy in PC cells. Results. Compared with the control group, cell viability was inhibited and cell apoptosis and autophagy were enhanced in the SDT group, while cell viability, autophagy, and apoptosis in the 5-ALA and US groups were not significantly changed. Moreover, 3-MA treatment inhibited autophagy and accelerated apoptosis, whereas z-VAD treatment reduced apoptosis but did not affect autophagy in PC cells. Conclusions. Autophagy was activated in SDT-treated PC cells, and inhibition of autophagy promoted cell apoptosis in PC cells.

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Keywords

Pancreatic cancer cell lines; sonodynamic therapy; autophagy; apoptosis; 5-aminolevulinic acid; inhibitors

About this article
Title

Inhibition of autophagy promotes sonodynamic therapy-induced apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells

Journal

Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica

Issue

Vol 61, No 3 (2023)

Article type

Original paper

Pages

172-182

Published online

2023-10-03

Page views

476

Article views/downloads

236

DOI

10.5603/fhc.95262

Pubmed

37787036

Bibliographic record

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2023;61(3):172-182.

Keywords

Pancreatic cancer cell lines
sonodynamic therapy
autophagy
apoptosis
5-aminolevulinic acid
inhibitors

Authors

Xiaoxue Du
Jiaming Song
Ziwen Zhang
Jia Liu
Dan Xu

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