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Vol 13, No 2 (2018)
Heart failure
Published online: 2018-05-30
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Growth differentiation factor 15 as a biomarker in heart failure

Wiesław Piechota, Paweł Krzesiński
DOI: 10.5603/FC.2018.0034
·
Folia Cardiologica 2018;13(2):174-180.

open access

Vol 13, No 2 (2018)
Heart failure
Published online: 2018-05-30

Abstract

Prevalence of heart failure (HF) diagnosis has increased for the whole spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. The increase was partly due to extension of average life expectancy. In addition, HF diagnostic methods have also improved, including imaging and laboratory testing — especially routine B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP) determination. However, because of a serious prognosis (a short survival time) of the condition search for novel biomarkers that could be used in the initial diagnosis, determining the severity of HF, and effectiveness of treatment and, last but not least, in the prognosis is still underway. Among several investigational new markers one of them — growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) seems to have a relatively high potential in the above applications. The most pronounced feature of this protein biomarker is its predictive value of HF and all-cause mortality, independent of other biomarkers and additive to them. This is due to variety of complex pathophysiological processes leading to the increase of the marker concentration. Growth differentiation factor 15 expression increases in cardiovascular cells (cardiomyocytes, endothelium) and other cells (macrophages, adipocytes) in response to pathological stimuli (ischaemia, oxidative stress, inflammation). The increased expression may have autocrine protective effect. Population-based studies also indicate the potential usefulness of the GDF-15 in detecting subclinical HF. Clinical value of GDF-15 increases by its use together with BNP and/or troponins (multimarker strategy). Growth differentiation factor 15 may therefore play an important role in the biochemical system of early warning about the probability of developing HF, and in assessing the risk of death when HF occurs.

Abstract

Prevalence of heart failure (HF) diagnosis has increased for the whole spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. The increase was partly due to extension of average life expectancy. In addition, HF diagnostic methods have also improved, including imaging and laboratory testing — especially routine B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP) determination. However, because of a serious prognosis (a short survival time) of the condition search for novel biomarkers that could be used in the initial diagnosis, determining the severity of HF, and effectiveness of treatment and, last but not least, in the prognosis is still underway. Among several investigational new markers one of them — growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) seems to have a relatively high potential in the above applications. The most pronounced feature of this protein biomarker is its predictive value of HF and all-cause mortality, independent of other biomarkers and additive to them. This is due to variety of complex pathophysiological processes leading to the increase of the marker concentration. Growth differentiation factor 15 expression increases in cardiovascular cells (cardiomyocytes, endothelium) and other cells (macrophages, adipocytes) in response to pathological stimuli (ischaemia, oxidative stress, inflammation). The increased expression may have autocrine protective effect. Population-based studies also indicate the potential usefulness of the GDF-15 in detecting subclinical HF. Clinical value of GDF-15 increases by its use together with BNP and/or troponins (multimarker strategy). Growth differentiation factor 15 may therefore play an important role in the biochemical system of early warning about the probability of developing HF, and in assessing the risk of death when HF occurs.

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Keywords

growth differentiation factor 15, heart failure, biomarker

About this article
Title

Growth differentiation factor 15 as a biomarker in heart failure

Journal

Folia Cardiologica

Issue

Vol 13, No 2 (2018)

Pages

174-180

Published online

2018-05-30

DOI

10.5603/FC.2018.0034

Bibliographic record

Folia Cardiologica 2018;13(2):174-180.

Keywords

growth differentiation factor 15
heart failure
biomarker

Authors

Wiesław Piechota
Paweł Krzesiński

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