open access

Vol 9, No 3 (2014)
Review Papers
Published online: 2014-09-19
Get Citation

Coronary heart disease in young adults: the magnitude of the problem, risk factors and prognosis — review of literature

Ewa Magdalena Maroszyńska-Dmoch, Beata Wożakowska-Kapłon
Folia Cardiologica 2014;9(3):267-274.

open access

Vol 9, No 3 (2014)
Review Papers
Published online: 2014-09-19

Abstract

The etiology of ischemic heart disease (IHD) among patients less than 45 years of age is related to atherosclerosis inapproximately 80% of cases and few conventional risk factors, however they represent unique set of risk factors compared with the older population. Young patients with artery coronary syndrome (ACS) are mainly male, smokers, obese with lipid abnormalities and positive family history of premature coronary heart disease. Non-atherosclerotic IHD in young adults has been estimated in about 20% of cases and it can be caused by: coronary artery embolism, coagulation disorders, congenital coronary artery anomalies, active infectious/inflammatory process and coronary vasospasm. In every young patient with clinical presentation of ACS, use of recreational drugs or androgenic anabolic steroids should be looked for and recorded. Short-term prognosis in young patients with an acute myocardial infarction is favorable. The results of recent clinical studies suggest that long-term prognosis in the young population is poor and the negative independent prognostic factors are: smoking, heart failure, prior myocardial infarction, diabetes and multi-vessel disease. It seems reasonable that screening non-invasive tests for early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis including: carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index and computed tomography coronary artery calcium score should be considered especially with regard to young patients. However additional studies concerning CHD in young patients are necessary.

Abstract

The etiology of ischemic heart disease (IHD) among patients less than 45 years of age is related to atherosclerosis inapproximately 80% of cases and few conventional risk factors, however they represent unique set of risk factors compared with the older population. Young patients with artery coronary syndrome (ACS) are mainly male, smokers, obese with lipid abnormalities and positive family history of premature coronary heart disease. Non-atherosclerotic IHD in young adults has been estimated in about 20% of cases and it can be caused by: coronary artery embolism, coagulation disorders, congenital coronary artery anomalies, active infectious/inflammatory process and coronary vasospasm. In every young patient with clinical presentation of ACS, use of recreational drugs or androgenic anabolic steroids should be looked for and recorded. Short-term prognosis in young patients with an acute myocardial infarction is favorable. The results of recent clinical studies suggest that long-term prognosis in the young population is poor and the negative independent prognostic factors are: smoking, heart failure, prior myocardial infarction, diabetes and multi-vessel disease. It seems reasonable that screening non-invasive tests for early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis including: carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index and computed tomography coronary artery calcium score should be considered especially with regard to young patients. However additional studies concerning CHD in young patients are necessary.
Get Citation

Keywords

coronary ischemic disease, coronary heart disease, acute coronary syndrome, atherosclerosis, young adults, risk factors, prognosis

Supplementary Files (2)
streszczenie
Download
3KB
abstract
Download
2KB
About this article
Title

Coronary heart disease in young adults: the magnitude of the problem, risk factors and prognosis — review of literature

Journal

Folia Cardiologica

Issue

Vol 9, No 3 (2014)

Pages

267-274

Published online

2014-09-19

Bibliographic record

Folia Cardiologica 2014;9(3):267-274.

Keywords

coronary ischemic disease
coronary heart disease
acute coronary syndrome
atherosclerosis
young adults
risk factors
prognosis

Authors

Ewa Magdalena Maroszyńska-Dmoch
Beata Wożakowska-Kapłon

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

 

Wydawcą serwisu jest  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl