open access

Vol 70, No 5 (2019)
Review Article
Published online: 2019-10-25
Submitted: 2019-06-03
Accepted: 2019-06-04
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Direct actions of gonadotropins beyond the reproductive system and their role in human aging and neoplasia [Bezpośrednie działanie gonadotropin poza układem rozrodczym i ich rola w starzeniu się i nowotworzeniu u człowieka]

Marek Pawlikowski
DOI: 10.5603/EP.a2019.0034
·
Pubmed: 31681968
·
Endokrynologia Polska 2019;70(5):437-444.

open access

Vol 70, No 5 (2019)
Review Article
Published online: 2019-10-25
Submitted: 2019-06-03
Accepted: 2019-06-04

Abstract

Pituitary hormones folitropin (follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH) and lutropin (luteinising hormone, LH) are known as the key regulators of human reproduction. However, their receptors have been identified also in several organs and tissues beyond the reproductive system, and there is cumulating evidence of their direct extra-gonadal actions. The expression of LH receptors (LHR) was found in the brain and adrenal cortex. FSH receptors (FSHR) were found to be expressed in osteoclasts, monocytes, adipocytes, and peri- and intra-tumoural blood vessel endothelia of malignant tumours. Other localisations of FSHR and LHR are also suggested by immunohistochemistry, but these findings need confirmation using molecular biology techniques. Because the high levels of gonadotropins are a constant phenomenon during human aging, especially in postmenopausal women, it is hypothesised that the direct actions of FSH and LH are involved in the pathogenesis of age-related disorders. The proposal of therapy based on the inhibition of gonadotropin hypersecretion is also discussed.

Abstract

Pituitary hormones folitropin (follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH) and lutropin (luteinising hormone, LH) are known as the key regulators of human reproduction. However, their receptors have been identified also in several organs and tissues beyond the reproductive system, and there is cumulating evidence of their direct extra-gonadal actions. The expression of LH receptors (LHR) was found in the brain and adrenal cortex. FSH receptors (FSHR) were found to be expressed in osteoclasts, monocytes, adipocytes, and peri- and intra-tumoural blood vessel endothelia of malignant tumours. Other localisations of FSHR and LHR are also suggested by immunohistochemistry, but these findings need confirmation using molecular biology techniques. Because the high levels of gonadotropins are a constant phenomenon during human aging, especially in postmenopausal women, it is hypothesised that the direct actions of FSH and LH are involved in the pathogenesis of age-related disorders. The proposal of therapy based on the inhibition of gonadotropin hypersecretion is also discussed.

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Keywords

folitropin; lutropin; neoplasia; aging

About this article
Title

Direct actions of gonadotropins beyond the reproductive system and their role in human aging and neoplasia [Bezpośrednie działanie gonadotropin poza układem rozrodczym i ich rola w starzeniu się i nowotworzeniu u człowieka]

Journal

Endokrynologia Polska

Issue

Vol 70, No 5 (2019)

Pages

437-444

Published online

2019-10-25

DOI

10.5603/EP.a2019.0034

Pubmed

31681968

Bibliographic record

Endokrynologia Polska 2019;70(5):437-444.

Keywords

folitropin
lutropin
neoplasia
aging

Authors

Marek Pawlikowski

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