open access

Vol 75, No 2 (2024)
Review paper
Submitted: 2024-02-23
Accepted: 2024-04-01
Published online: 2024-04-22
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Glycaemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries: an updated review

Ahmad Ali Alrasheedi1
·
Pubmed: 38646983
·
Endokrynol Pol 2024;75(2):159-169.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

open access

Vol 75, No 2 (2024)
Review Article
Submitted: 2024-02-23
Accepted: 2024-04-01
Published online: 2024-04-22

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a major public health concern, causing significant disability and death worldwide. Fuelled by a modern sedentary lifestyle and poor dietary practices, T2DM affects at least 10.5% of the world’s population. This paper seeks to review the progress made by the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) in addressing T2DM, focusing on glycaemic control proportions and comparing it with the 2015 review. The results indicate no significant improvement in glycaemic control proportions since the last review, with only 9.2% to 56.9% of patients having good control (glycosylated haemoglobin < 7%). However, there are no significant differences in glycaemic control between the GCC countries and other places worldwide despite being considered hotbeds of T2DM. Many factors contribute to poor glycaemic control. Specifically, evidence shows that being overweight or obese is the most common modifiable risk factor for T2DM incidence and poor glycaemic control.

The GCC countries have higher rates of obesity. Additionally, poor glycaemic control is mainly related to a lack of adherence to insulin and medication use. Poor diet, rich in calories and low in fruits and vegetables, and a sedentary lifestyle also significantly contribute to poor glycaemic control and obesity. Therefore, to reduce the incidence of disease and improve glycaemic control in diabetic patients, educational programs promoting lifestyle changes should be implemented. Ongoing research is also necessary to assess the trend of glycaemic control and its risk factors in our region.

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a major public health concern, causing significant disability and death worldwide. Fuelled by a modern sedentary lifestyle and poor dietary practices, T2DM affects at least 10.5% of the world’s population. This paper seeks to review the progress made by the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) in addressing T2DM, focusing on glycaemic control proportions and comparing it with the 2015 review. The results indicate no significant improvement in glycaemic control proportions since the last review, with only 9.2% to 56.9% of patients having good control (glycosylated haemoglobin < 7%). However, there are no significant differences in glycaemic control between the GCC countries and other places worldwide despite being considered hotbeds of T2DM. Many factors contribute to poor glycaemic control. Specifically, evidence shows that being overweight or obese is the most common modifiable risk factor for T2DM incidence and poor glycaemic control.

The GCC countries have higher rates of obesity. Additionally, poor glycaemic control is mainly related to a lack of adherence to insulin and medication use. Poor diet, rich in calories and low in fruits and vegetables, and a sedentary lifestyle also significantly contribute to poor glycaemic control and obesity. Therefore, to reduce the incidence of disease and improve glycaemic control in diabetic patients, educational programs promoting lifestyle changes should be implemented. Ongoing research is also necessary to assess the trend of glycaemic control and its risk factors in our region.

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Keywords

Arab; HbA1c; obesity; GCC; Middle East; Saudi Arabia

About this article
Title

Glycaemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries: an updated review

Journal

Endokrynologia Polska

Issue

Vol 75, No 2 (2024)

Article type

Review paper

Pages

159-169

Published online

2024-04-22

Page views

225

Article views/downloads

147

DOI

10.5603/ep.99519

Pubmed

38646983

Bibliographic record

Endokrynol Pol 2024;75(2):159-169.

Keywords

Arab
HbA1c
obesity
GCC
Middle East
Saudi Arabia

Authors

Ahmad Ali Alrasheedi

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