open access

Vol 73, No 6 (2022)
Review paper
Submitted: 2022-01-08
Accepted: 2022-03-28
Published online: 2022-09-20
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Hyperprolactinemia and insulin resistance

Marcin Gierach1, Malwina Bruska-Sikorska1, Magdalena Rojek1, Roman Junik1
·
Pubmed: 36621922
·
Endokrynol Pol 2022;73(6):959-967.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Jurasz University Hospital 1, Bydgoszcz, Poland

open access

Vol 73, No 6 (2022)
Review Article
Submitted: 2022-01-08
Accepted: 2022-03-28
Published online: 2022-09-20

Abstract

Hyperprolactinaemia is the most common dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and occurs more commonly in women. The prevalence of hyperprolactinaemia ranges from 0.4% in the general adult population to as high as 9–17% in women with reproductive diseases. It is accompanied by the phenomenon of insulin resistance (IR), which is also a significant clinical problem nowadays. The prevalence of IR is increasing, particularly in developing countries and in younger populations, with estimates of prevalence ranging from 20 to 40% in different populations.

The aim of our review is to summarize recent data on the possible association between IR and hyperprolactinaemia. This review is based on an electronic search of the literature in the PubMed database published from 2000 to 2022 using combinations of the following keywords: IR, hyperprolactinemia or IR and hyperprolactinemia. The references included in previously published review articles were also checked, and any relevant papers were also included.

Numerous scientific studies have shown a relationship between IR and hyperprolactinaemia. Increased plasma prolactin (PRL) levels are often associated with an increase in tissue resistance to insulin. There are many scientific theories explaining the probable mechanisms of this phenomenon. One is the finding that glucose and PRL act synergistically in inducing the transcription of insulin genes. It is also suggested that PRL may act as a regulator of insulin sensitivity and metabolic homeostasis in adipose tissue. The topic of the mutual correlation of hyperprolactinaemia and IR is important, and it certainly requires further research and observation.

Abstract

Hyperprolactinaemia is the most common dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and occurs more commonly in women. The prevalence of hyperprolactinaemia ranges from 0.4% in the general adult population to as high as 9–17% in women with reproductive diseases. It is accompanied by the phenomenon of insulin resistance (IR), which is also a significant clinical problem nowadays. The prevalence of IR is increasing, particularly in developing countries and in younger populations, with estimates of prevalence ranging from 20 to 40% in different populations.

The aim of our review is to summarize recent data on the possible association between IR and hyperprolactinaemia. This review is based on an electronic search of the literature in the PubMed database published from 2000 to 2022 using combinations of the following keywords: IR, hyperprolactinemia or IR and hyperprolactinemia. The references included in previously published review articles were also checked, and any relevant papers were also included.

Numerous scientific studies have shown a relationship between IR and hyperprolactinaemia. Increased plasma prolactin (PRL) levels are often associated with an increase in tissue resistance to insulin. There are many scientific theories explaining the probable mechanisms of this phenomenon. One is the finding that glucose and PRL act synergistically in inducing the transcription of insulin genes. It is also suggested that PRL may act as a regulator of insulin sensitivity and metabolic homeostasis in adipose tissue. The topic of the mutual correlation of hyperprolactinaemia and IR is important, and it certainly requires further research and observation.

Get Citation

Keywords

hyperprolactinaemia; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome

About this article
Title

Hyperprolactinemia and insulin resistance

Journal

Endokrynologia Polska

Issue

Vol 73, No 6 (2022)

Article type

Review paper

Pages

959-967

Published online

2022-09-20

Page views

4619

Article views/downloads

1286

DOI

10.5603/EP.a2022.0075

Pubmed

36621922

Bibliographic record

Endokrynol Pol 2022;73(6):959-967.

Keywords

hyperprolactinaemia
insulin resistance
metabolic syndrome

Authors

Marcin Gierach
Malwina Bruska-Sikorska
Magdalena Rojek
Roman Junik

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