open access

Vol 71, No 5 (2020)
Review paper
Published online: 2020-10-30
Submitted: 2020-04-20
Accepted: 2020-07-07
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Thyroid gland dysfunction and its effect on the cardiovascular system: a comprehensive review of the literature

Navid Ahmadi, Faisal Ahmadi, Masehullah Sadiqi, Katarzyna Ziemnicka, Andrzej Minczykowski
DOI: 10.5603/EP.a2020.0052
·
Pubmed: 33202032
·
Endokrynologia Polska 2020;71(5):466-478.

open access

Vol 71, No 5 (2020)
REVIEWS — Postgraduate Education
Published online: 2020-10-30
Submitted: 2020-04-20
Accepted: 2020-07-07

Abstract

There is an intimate and functional relationship between the cardiovascular system and the thyroid gland; from sharing the same embryologic origin to modulating each of the components of the heart for a normal function. Due to this relationship, patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases often undergo a thyroid function test to rule out hypo- or hyperthyroidism. The signs and symptoms of hyper- and hypothyroidism are clinically relevant and profound. The cardiac function changes can be explained through the cellular mechanism of the thyroid hormone action on the heart. Minor alteration of thyroid hormone can change vascular resistance, cardiac contractility, blood pressure, and heart rhythm, because of the presence of the thyroid hormone receptors on these tissues. A better understanding of the impact of thyroid hormones on the cardiovascular system is paramount for physicians to make a quick decision and initiate a treatment plan because it has been shown to reverse some of the cardiac changes such as systolic and diastolic dysfunction. With this literature review, we aim to describe the holistic effect of thyroid hormones on the cardiovascular system, from its effect on a cellular level to changes in cardiac functions in subclinical and overt hypo/hyperthyroidism. Additionally, we will describe the effects of the drug treatment regimen of thyroid on the cardiac function. 

Abstract

There is an intimate and functional relationship between the cardiovascular system and the thyroid gland; from sharing the same embryologic origin to modulating each of the components of the heart for a normal function. Due to this relationship, patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases often undergo a thyroid function test to rule out hypo- or hyperthyroidism. The signs and symptoms of hyper- and hypothyroidism are clinically relevant and profound. The cardiac function changes can be explained through the cellular mechanism of the thyroid hormone action on the heart. Minor alteration of thyroid hormone can change vascular resistance, cardiac contractility, blood pressure, and heart rhythm, because of the presence of the thyroid hormone receptors on these tissues. A better understanding of the impact of thyroid hormones on the cardiovascular system is paramount for physicians to make a quick decision and initiate a treatment plan because it has been shown to reverse some of the cardiac changes such as systolic and diastolic dysfunction. With this literature review, we aim to describe the holistic effect of thyroid hormones on the cardiovascular system, from its effect on a cellular level to changes in cardiac functions in subclinical and overt hypo/hyperthyroidism. Additionally, we will describe the effects of the drug treatment regimen of thyroid on the cardiac function. 

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Keywords

cardiovascular system; hypertension; hyperthyroidism; hypothyroidism; thyroid hormones

About this article
Title

Thyroid gland dysfunction and its effect on the cardiovascular system: a comprehensive review of the literature

Journal

Endokrynologia Polska

Issue

Vol 71, No 5 (2020)

Article type

Review paper

Pages

466-478

Published online

2020-10-30

DOI

10.5603/EP.a2020.0052

Pubmed

33202032

Bibliographic record

Endokrynologia Polska 2020;71(5):466-478.

Keywords

cardiovascular system
hypertension
hyperthyroidism
hypothyroidism
thyroid hormones

Authors

Navid Ahmadi
Faisal Ahmadi
Masehullah Sadiqi
Katarzyna Ziemnicka
Andrzej Minczykowski

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