open access

Vol 71, No 4 (2020)
Review paper
Published online: 2020-06-01
Submitted: 2020-03-02
Accepted: 2020-05-12
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Short- and medium-term efficacy of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors for the treatment of type 1 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis

Yuxin Huang, Zeju Jiang, Yiping Wei
DOI: 10.5603/EP.a2020.0034
·
Pubmed: 32901912
·
Endokrynologia Polska 2020;71(4):325-333.

open access

Vol 71, No 4 (2020)
Review Article
Published online: 2020-06-01
Submitted: 2020-03-02
Accepted: 2020-05-12

Abstract

Introduction: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are insulin-independent and glucose-dependent anti-hyperglycaemic drugs that have shown potential as an adjuvant therapy to insulin for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The purpose of this meta-analysis is to systematically collect available data from randomised trials to determine SGLT-2 inhibitor efficacy in terms of glycaemic control, body mass index, and renal protection when compared with placebo. Material and methods: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases were searched for randomised controlled trials and metaanalyses (without language restrictions) conducted from January 2010 to September 2019. Results: Seventeen randomised controlled trials with 7325 participants were included. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 therapy significantly reduced the level of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (by 0.37%), body weight (by 2.88 kg), and estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) (by 0.67 mL/min/1.73 m²) when compared with placebo (all outcomes, p < 0.00001). Subgroup analysis by HbA1c levels showed significant differences between six and 12 months of treatment (p < 0.1). The magnitude of the HbA1c lowering effect waned with longer duration of treatment after six months (up to 12 months). Subgroup analysis by body weight showed significant differences between 1 and 3–4 months of treatment (p < 0.1). Weight loss plateaued after 3–4 months of treatment; subsequently, the weight remained relatively stable until 12 months. Subgroup analysis by eGFR showed significant differences between six and 12 months of treatment (p < 0.1). The magnitude of the eGFR lowering effect increased with longer duration of treatment after six months (up to 12 months). Conclusions: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors show significant therapeutic effects when compared with placebo. Although changes in HbA1c, body weight, and eGFR vary during treatment, the therapeutic effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors measured by these three outcomes can last up to 12 months. More long-term, randomised trials and extended studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of SGLT2 inhibitors as adjuvant therapy for T1DM patients. 

Abstract

Introduction: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are insulin-independent and glucose-dependent anti-hyperglycaemic drugs that have shown potential as an adjuvant therapy to insulin for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The purpose of this meta-analysis is to systematically collect available data from randomised trials to determine SGLT-2 inhibitor efficacy in terms of glycaemic control, body mass index, and renal protection when compared with placebo. Material and methods: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases were searched for randomised controlled trials and metaanalyses (without language restrictions) conducted from January 2010 to September 2019. Results: Seventeen randomised controlled trials with 7325 participants were included. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 therapy significantly reduced the level of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (by 0.37%), body weight (by 2.88 kg), and estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) (by 0.67 mL/min/1.73 m²) when compared with placebo (all outcomes, p < 0.00001). Subgroup analysis by HbA1c levels showed significant differences between six and 12 months of treatment (p < 0.1). The magnitude of the HbA1c lowering effect waned with longer duration of treatment after six months (up to 12 months). Subgroup analysis by body weight showed significant differences between 1 and 3–4 months of treatment (p < 0.1). Weight loss plateaued after 3–4 months of treatment; subsequently, the weight remained relatively stable until 12 months. Subgroup analysis by eGFR showed significant differences between six and 12 months of treatment (p < 0.1). The magnitude of the eGFR lowering effect increased with longer duration of treatment after six months (up to 12 months). Conclusions: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors show significant therapeutic effects when compared with placebo. Although changes in HbA1c, body weight, and eGFR vary during treatment, the therapeutic effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors measured by these three outcomes can last up to 12 months. More long-term, randomised trials and extended studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of SGLT2 inhibitors as adjuvant therapy for T1DM patients. 

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Keywords

sodium-glucose co-transporter 2; therapeutic effects; type 1 diabetes; meta-analysis; systematic review

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Title

Short- and medium-term efficacy of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors for the treatment of type 1 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis

Journal

Endokrynologia Polska

Issue

Vol 71, No 4 (2020)

Article type

Review paper

Pages

325-333

Published online

2020-06-01

DOI

10.5603/EP.a2020.0034

Pubmed

32901912

Bibliographic record

Endokrynologia Polska 2020;71(4):325-333.

Keywords

sodium-glucose co-transporter 2
therapeutic effects
type 1 diabetes
meta-analysis
systematic review

Authors

Yuxin Huang
Zeju Jiang
Yiping Wei

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